Wednesday, March 31, 2004

Aerospace Industry, World War II

Germany's aircraft industry after World War I was heavily restricted by the Treaty of Versailles. In 1921 - 22 the constraints were eased, and a productive light-aircraft industry began to develop. When restrictions were basically abolished in 1926, a number of new ventures were formed; those which survived included such companies as Arado, Dornier, Focke-Wulf, Junkers, and Heinkel.

Tuesday, March 30, 2004

Culebra Island

Spanish �Isla De Culebra, � island, Puerto Rico, 20 miles (30 km) east of Puerto Rico island and 15 miles west of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. The island fronts north on the Atlantic Ocean and south and west on Vieques Sound, which connects the Atlantic with the Caribbean Sea. About 7 miles (11 km) long and 2 miles (3 km) wide, Culebra Island is 10 square miles (26 square km) in area. Its hilly, almost barren mass of limestone and igneous

Monday, March 29, 2004


In the Old Testament, the easternmost of the two hills of ancient Jerusalem. It was the site of the Jebusite city captured by David, king of Israel and Judah, in the 10th century BC (2 Samuel 5:6 - 9) and established by him as his royal capital. Some scholars believe that the name also belonged to the �stronghold of Zion� taken by David (2 Samuel 5:7), which may have been the fortress of the city. The

Saturday, March 27, 2004



Friday, March 26, 2004

Monet, Claude

Monet's life during the 1860s was precarious and itinerant, and he sold almost nothing; but several works were accepted for exhibition in the yearly Salons, most notably, and with great success, a fine but not yet Impressionist portrait of his future wife, Camille. Having already painted in Paris, Le Havre, Chailly, Honfleur, Trouville, and F�camp and at other stations between

Thursday, March 25, 2004

Tabari, At-

Obviously, at-Tabari could not sustain his preference for reports originating with the Prophet and the pious scholars of the early community known as as-salaf. His judgment of a report's reliability was now based upon the largely theoretical criterion that it should originate with either an eyewitness or a contemporary informant. This posed a problem for which at-Tabar

Wednesday, March 24, 2004

Performing Arts, Classical Music

By 1999 the history of the 20th century could be seen in full perspective, and one conclusion evident to music lovers was that it had been the most operatic century since the Renaissance and the origins of opera. Newspapers and television (the nonfiction programs as well as the ones with invented plots and characters) were filled with �operatic� material - if Samuel Johnson's

Tuesday, March 23, 2004


County, eastern Massachusetts, U.S., southwest and south of Boston, bordered by Massachusetts Bay to the northeast and Rhode Island to the southwest. It consists of an upland region, including the Blue Hills, that is drained by the Charles and Neponset rivers. The main parklands are Wrentham State Forest and F. Gilbert Hills, Bristol Blake, and Webb Memorial state

Monday, March 22, 2004

Alexander Of Pherae

Despot of Pherae in Thessaly, Greece, from 369 to 358, whose tyranny caused the intervention of a number of city-states in Thessalian affairs. The other Thessalian cities, refusing to recognize Alexander as tagos, or head magistrate, appealed to the Thebans, who sent Pelopidas to their assistance. Alexander imprisoned Pelopidas, and the Thebans had to send a large army to procure

Sunday, March 21, 2004

Margai, Sir Milton (augustus Striery)

The grandson of a paramount chief and the

Saturday, March 20, 2004


Also spelled �Cirenaica�, Arabic �Barqah� historic region of North Africa and until 1963 a province of the United Kingdom of Libya. As early as c. 631 BC Greek colonists settled the northern half of ancient Cyrenaica, known then as Pentapolis for the five major cities they established: Euhesperides (Banghazi), Barce (al-Marj), Cyrene (Shahhat), Apollonia (Marsa Susah), and Tenchira (Tukrah). In later times Ptolemais (Tulmaythah) and Daims-Zarine

Friday, March 19, 2004

Kulakova, Galina

A member of four Soviet Olympic ski teams from 1964 to 1976, Kulakova was a national champion from 1969 to 1971 and a world champion in 1969 and 1970. In 1968 at the Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France, Kulakova won

Thursday, March 18, 2004


Genus of about 60 species of herbaceous plants, of the amaranth family (Amaranthaceae), native to tropical America and Africa and characterized by alternate leaves and showy flowers in spikes, which in cultivated forms are often fasciated and form compact or feathery clusters. Some species are called woolflower for their dense chaffy flower spikes

Wednesday, March 17, 2004


Modern Greek �Fok�s, � district of ancient central Greece, extending northward from the Gulf of Corinth over the range of Mount Parnassus to the Locrian Mountains, which formed the northern frontier. In the fertile Cephissus River valley, between the two mountain ranges, lay most of the Phocian settlements: Amphicleia (or Amphicaea), Tithorea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Abae, and Daulis. A mountain

Tuesday, March 16, 2004

Yungang Caves

The caves are among the earliest remaining examples of the first major flowering of Buddhist art in China. About 20 major cave temples and many smaller

Monday, March 15, 2004

Arundel, Thomas

English statesman and archbishop of Canterbury who aided the opponents of King Richard II; during the reign of King Henry IV, Arundel vigorously suppressed the Lollards. His father was Richard Fitzalan, 3rd earl of Arundel, and his mother was a member of the powerful House of Lancaster. He became bishop of Ely in 1374, and during the early years of the reign of Richard

Sunday, March 14, 2004

Silica Mineral

Any of the forms of silicon dioxide (SiO2), including quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite, melanophlogite, lechatelierite, and chalcedony. Various kinds of silica minerals have been produced synthetically, among which are keatite and silicalite.

Saturday, March 13, 2004


The yacht races held in every Olympic meet since 1900, except for 1904, illustrate the general tendency in the period toward smaller boats and, after mid-century, the increasing popularity of one-class racing. Earlier Olympics included races for boats of various sizes and weights. The difficulty and expense of freighting boats and the increasing difficulty of recruiting

Friday, March 12, 2004

Hansen, Peter Andreas

Hansen became director of the Seeberg Observatory, near Gotha, in 1825, and in 1857 a new observatory was built for him. He worked on theoretical geodesy, optics, and the theory of probability. His most important

Thursday, March 11, 2004


City, central Turkey. The city lies on the site of a Bronze Age settlement 100 miles (160 km) east of Ankara in a valley of the Ak Mountains, at an elevation of 4,360 feet (1,329 m). The main road between Sivas and Ankara passes through it, but the rail line bypasses it to the southwest, and the city functions primarily as a local market and administrative centre. Mohair, wool, grain, gum, and lead are

Wednesday, March 10, 2004


Ornamental, openwork fabric formed by looping, interlacing, braiding (plaiting), or twisting threads. The dividing line between lace and embroidery, which is an ornamentation added to an already completed fabric, is not easy to draw; a number of laces, such as Limerick and filet lace, can be called forms of embroidery upon a more or less open fabric. On the other hand, fancy

Tuesday, March 09, 2004

M�re Og Romsdal

Fylke (county), western Norway. The county faces the Norwegian Sea. It includes the Stadlandet (peninsula) in the south and extends northward to Trondheim Fjord. The county seat is Molde. The bleak Dovre Mountains embrace an inland corner of its terrain that is characterized by a fjord-indented coastline, rugged peaks, deep valleys, and many offshore islands. About half

Monday, March 08, 2004

Guercino, Il

Guercino received his earliest training locally, but the formative influence on his style

Sunday, March 07, 2004

Culpeper's Rebellion

(1677 - 79), early popular uprising against proprietary rule in the Albemarle section of northern Carolina, caused by the efforts of the proprietary government to enforce the British Navigation acts. These trade laws denied the colonists a free market outside England and placed heavy duties on commodities. The colonists' resentment found an object in the deputy governor,

Saturday, March 06, 2004

Harden, Maximilian Felix Ernst

Initially an actor, Harden founded and edited the weekly Die Zukunft (1892 - 1923; �The Future�), which attained great influence by tasteless methods. Calling war a �bracing educational

Friday, March 05, 2004


City, seat (1861) of Pueblo county, south-central Colorado, U.S., situated on the Arkansas River, near its confluence with Fountain Creek, at an elevation of 4,690 feet (1,430 metres). Jim Beckwourth, a trader and onetime war chief of the Crow Indians, established a trading post, Fort Pueblo, on the site in 1842; the post was abandoned in 1854 following a period of hostilities between whites and Indians.

Thursday, March 04, 2004


In full �Chuang Autonomous Region of Kwangsi, �Chinese (Wade-Giles) �Kuang-hsi Chuang-tsu Tzu-chih-ch'�, �(Pinyin) �Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu, � autonomous region located in southern China. It is bounded by the Chinese provinces of Yunnan on the west, Kweichow on the north, Hunan on the northeast, and Kwangtung on the southeast, and by Vietnam and the Gulf of Tonkin on the southwest. It covers an area of 85,100 square miles (220,400 square kilometres). Nan-ning, the capital, is about 75 miles (121 kilometres) southwest of the region's geographic

Wednesday, March 03, 2004

Quaking Grass

The various species are native to Eurasia. Briza maxima, B. media, and B. minor (shivery grass) are cultivated as ornamentals and have become naturalized in temperate

Tuesday, March 02, 2004


Member of a Germanic people who in ancient times lived in the area of modern Schleswig and along the Baltic coast. The period of Roman decline in the West was marked by vigorous Saxon piracy in the North Sea. During the early part of the 5th century AD, the Saxons spread rapidly through north Germany and along the coasts of Gaul and Britain. The coastal stretch from the Elbe

Monday, March 01, 2004


City (�district�) and port, Manawatu-Wanganui local government region, southwestern North Island, New Zealand, near the mouth of the Wanganui River. The site lies within a tract bought by the New Zealand Company in 1840. The company established a settlement in 1841 and named it Petre. It was renamed in 1844, the present name deriving from a Maori term meaning �big mouth,� �big bay,� or �big