Friday, April 30, 2004

Integral Equation

Thursday, April 29, 2004

Dhyani-buddha

Scholars in recent years have pointed out that the term Dhyani-Buddha does not appear in the original texts, but the nomenclature continues

Wednesday, April 28, 2004

Ujung Pandang

Already a flourishing port when the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century, Makasar subsequently came under control of the Dutch, who built a trading station in 1607 and finally deposed the sultan in 1667. It was

Tuesday, April 27, 2004

Arsaces

Iranian name borne by the Parthian royal house as being descended from Arsaces, son of Phriapites (date unknown), a chief of the seminomadic Parni tribe from the Caspian steppes. The first of his line to gain power in Parthia was Arsaces I, who reigned from about 250 to about 211 BC. (Some authorities believe that a brother, Tiridates I, succeeded Arsaces about 248 and ruled until 211; other

Monday, April 26, 2004

Craig, James

American ice hockey goaltender who was part of the U.S. hockey team that won the gold medal at the 1980 Winter Olympics at Lake Placid, New York, U.S. The American victory in the hockey tournament, known as the �miracle on ice,� was one of the greatest surprises in the history of the Olympics, and Craig, who started every game in goal, was a leading figure in the

Sunday, April 25, 2004

Paulo Afonso Falls

Portuguese �Cachoeira De Paulo Afonso, � series of rapids and three cataracts in northeastern Brazil on the S�o Francisco River along the Bahia-Alagoas border. Lying 190 miles (305 km) from the river's mouth, the falls have a total height of 275 feet (84 m) and a width of less than 60 feet (18 m). With an average water discharge of 100,000 cubic feet (3,000 cubic m) per second, the falls are the site of a large hydroelectric station.

Saturday, April 24, 2004

Earhart, Amelia

Amelia Earhart, Last Flight, arranged by George Palmer Putnam (1937, reissued 1988), contains journal entries and messages sent home, selected and arranged by her husband. Biographies include George Palmer Putnam, Soaring Wings (1939, reissued 1972); Doris L. Rich, Amelia Earhart (1989); Mary S. Lovell, The Sound of Wings (1989); Susan Butler, East to the Dawn (1997); and Donald M. Goldstein and Katherine V. Dillon, Amelia (1997). Randall Brink, Lost Star: The Search for Amelia Earhart (1994), examines her disappearance.

Friday, April 23, 2004

Gabrieli, Giovanni

Egon Kenton, Life and Works of Giovanni Gabrieli (1967); and Denis Arnold, Giovanni Gabrieli and the Music of the Venetian High Renaissance (1979, reprinted 1986).

Wednesday, April 21, 2004

Roman-fleuve

(French: �novel stream�), series of novels, each one complete in itself, that deals with one central character, an era of national life, or successive generations of a family. Inspired by Honor� de Balzac's Com�die humaine and �mile Zola's Rougon-Macquart cycle, the roman-fleuve was a popular literary genre in France during the first half of the 20th century. Examples include

Tuesday, April 20, 2004

J�zsef, Attila

J�zsef was attracted by Marxist ideology and became a member of the then-illegal Communist Party. In 1932 he launched a short-lived literary periodical, Val�s�g, and in 1936 became one of the

Monday, April 19, 2004

Activity Coefficient

In chemistry, the ratio of the chemical activity of any substance to its molar concentration. The measured concentration of a substance may not be an accurate indicator of its chemical effectiveness, as represented by the equation for a particular reaction, in which case an activity coefficient is arbitrarily established and used instead of the concentration

Sunday, April 18, 2004

Ampthill

Town (�parish�), Mid Bedfordshire district, administrative and historic county of Bedfordshire, England, 8 miles (13 km) south-southwest of Bedford. The Church of St. Andrew contains a monument to Richard Nicolls (1624 - 72), the first English governor of New York. Ampthill Park, with its ancient oaks, marks the site of the castle where Catherine of Aragon was forced to reside, pending her

Saturday, April 17, 2004

Gabon, Industry

Gabon is one of the world's largest producers of manganese. Expansion of production at Moanda has been possible since the completion of the railroad to nearby Franceville in December 1986 and by the completion of improved ore handling facilities at the rail terminus at the deepwater port of Owendo in 1988. The exploitation and processing of uranium, which began 16 miles north

Friday, April 16, 2004

Hardwick, Elizabeth

Hardwick attended the University of Kentucky (B.A., 1938; M.A., 1939) and Columbia University in New York City. Her experience as a young Southern woman in Manhattan provided the backdrop for her somber, introspective first novel, The Ghostly

Thursday, April 15, 2004

Hetzer, Ludwig

After studies at Freiburg im Breisgau, Hetzer published Judicium Dei (1523; �The Judgment of God�), in which he condemned the use of images, and Ein Beweis (1524; �One Proof �), a work on the conversion of the Jews. The first work became a major part of the Reformed effort

Wednesday, April 14, 2004

Pacific Ocean, Deepwater circulation

It appears that the most important influence on the vertical circulation of the Pacific is the cold water generated around the Antarctic continent. This dense circumpolar

Tuesday, April 13, 2004

Madang

Port on the northeastern coast of the island of New Guinea, Papua New Guinea. It lies along Astrolabe Bay of the Bismarck Sea, near the mouth of the Gogol River. Madang is the centre for a large timber industry based on the Gogol forest about 25 miles (40 km) inland and is the distributing centre for the north coast and the Central Range. It is also a communication point for the

Monday, April 12, 2004

Fyt, Jan

Apprenticed to a painter when scarcely more than 10 years old, Fyt was accepted into the Guild of St. Luke as a master at age 20 and over the next 30 years produced a vast number of pictures with facility and power. His forte was the depiction

Sunday, April 11, 2004

Epistemology, Skepticism

Many philosophers past and present and many nonphilosophers who are studying philosophy for the first time have been struck by the seemingly indecisive nature of philosophical argumentation. For every argument, there seems to be a counterargument; and for every position, a counterposition. To a considerable extent skepticism is born of such reflection. Some

Saturday, April 10, 2004

Gahnite

The mineral zinc aluminum oxide, a member of the spinel (q.v.) series.

Friday, April 09, 2004

Alembert, Jean Le Rond D'

In 1739 he read his first paper to the Academy of Sciences, of which he became a member in 1741. In 1743, at the age of 26, he published his important Trait� de dynamique, a fundamental treatise on dynamics containing the famous �d'Alembert's principle,� which states that Newton's third law of motion (for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction) is true for bodies that are free to

Thursday, April 08, 2004

France, Coll�ge De

State-supported research institution and centre for adult education in Paris. Founded in 1530 by Francis I, it was originally the Collegium Trilinguae (College of Three Languages). It offers lectures by scholars chosen for eminence in their particular fields without reference to academic qualifications. Professorial chairs are not necessarily permanent, and fields

Wednesday, April 07, 2004

Tsugaru Strait

Japanese �Tsugaru-kaikyo, � strait of the northwest Pacific extending east from the Sea of Japan to the open ocean between the Japanese islands of Honshu (south) and Hokkaido. It is 15 to 25 miles (24 to 40 km) wide. The strait takes the Tsugaru Current, a warmer and saltier flow that is an extension of the Tsushima Drift, and carries it into the Pacific. Hakodate is a port city on Hokkaido; Aomori is its complement

Tuesday, April 06, 2004

Hawaii, Industry

Hawaii has several hundred companies engaged in diversified manufacturing. Heavy-manufacturing plants, using raw materials for the most part imported from the U.S. mainland, include an oil refinery that produces a variety of petroleum products and chemical compounds, a steel mill manufacturing reinforcing bars, several cement plants, a concrete-pipe plant, and

Monday, April 05, 2004

Roberts, Sir Charles G(eorge) D(ouglas)

After graduating

Sunday, April 04, 2004

Albania

Officially �Republic of Albania, �Albanian �Shqip�ria, �or �Republika e Shqip�ris�, � country located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula on the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea. It encompasses an area of 11,100 square miles (28,748 square kilometres), with a maximum length from north to south of about 210 miles (340 kilometres) and a maximum width of about 95 miles. It is bounded to the northwest by Montenegro, to the northeast by the Kosovo region

Saturday, April 03, 2004

Vienna, Congress Of

Austria, Prussia

Friday, April 02, 2004

Rye House Plot

(1683), alleged Whig conspiracy to assassinate or mount an insurrection against Charles II of England because of his pro-Roman Catholic policies. The plot drew its name from Rye House at Hoddeston, Hertfordshire, near which ran a narrow road where Charles was supposed to be killed as he traveled from a horse meet at Newmarket. By chance, according to the official narrative,

Thursday, April 01, 2004

Copeland, Charles Townsend

Copeland was educated at Harvard University (A.B., 1882), and, after a year as a teacher at a boys' school in New Jersey and another at Harvard Law School, he was a drama critic and book reviewer for the Boston Advertiser and the Boston