Wednesday, June 30, 2004

Vigeland, Gustav

Vigeland's parents were farmers, and he was apprenticed to a wood-carver when he was 14 years old. His first work was shown in 1889, and, though early influenced by Auguste

Tuesday, June 29, 2004

Chan I

Chan succeeded his uncle, King Dharmarajadhiraja (Thommoreachea). After quelling rebellions inspired by a pretender to the throne, he was crowned

Monday, June 28, 2004


Horse disease caused by Streptococcus equi, a bacterium that invades nasal and throat passages and forms abscesses in lymph nodes and other parts of the body. It is one of a group of diseases called distemper of horses. Young horses are most susceptible to it, and outbreaks of the disease usually occur where a number of horses are stabled. Mortality is low. Treatment

Sunday, June 27, 2004

Crabtree, Lotta

Crabtree grew up from the age of four in California, where her father moved the family during the Gold Rush of the early 1850s. At the Grass Valley mining camp she met Lola

Saturday, June 26, 2004

Tocharian Languages

Tocharian also spelled �Tokharian, � small group of extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Tarim River Basin (in the centre of the modern Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China) during the latter half of the 1st millennium AD. Documents from AD 500 - 700 attest to two: Tocharian A, from the area of Turfan in the east; and Tocharian B, chiefly from the region of Kucha in the west but also from the Turfan

Friday, June 25, 2004


The most

Thursday, June 24, 2004


In literature, an implied or indirect reference to a person, event, or thing or to a part of another text. Allusion is distinguished from such devices as direct quote and imitation or parody. Most allusions are based on the assumption that there is a body of knowledge that is shared by the author and the reader and that therefore the reader will understand the author's

Wednesday, June 23, 2004

Argentina, Finance

Economic troubles in the 1970s and '80s caused the near

Tuesday, June 22, 2004

France, History Of, The Army of the Republic

The Jacobin dictatorship had been an unstable blend of exalted patriotism, resolute political leadership, ideological fanaticism, and populist initiatives. The rhetoric and symbolism of democracy constituted a new civic pedagogy, matched by bold egalitarian policies. The army was a primary focal point of this democratic impetus. Back in 1790 the National Assembly

Monday, June 21, 2004

Najahid Dynasty

Muslim dynasty of Ethiopian Mamluks (slaves) that ruled Yemen in the period 1022 - 1158 from its capital at Zabid. The Ziyadid kingdom at Zabid (819 - 1018) had in its final years been controlled by Mamluk viziers, the last of whom divided Yemen between two slaves, Nafis and Najah. Nafis murdered the last Ziyadid ruler in 1018, and, after several years of bitter fighting and the death of Nafis, Najah emerged victorious

Sunday, June 20, 2004

Colette, Saint

The daughter of a carpenter at the monastery of Corbie, she was orphaned at 17 and entered the third order of St. Francis, living in a hermitage given her by the abbot of Corbie. In a vision, St. Francis directed Colette to restore the Poor Clares

Saturday, June 19, 2004


A member of the Manchu forces of Manchuria who had established the Ch'ing dynasty, Fu-k'ang-an inherited a minor post in the government. After distinguishing himself in battle, he was made military governor of Manchuria (1777). Between 1780 and 1795 he served several terms as governor-general in different Chinese provinces.

Friday, June 18, 2004

Mona Monkey

(Cercopithecus mona), common West African guenon that is found in tropical rainforests. The mona monkey is a speckled reddish brown in colour, with white underparts and an oval patch of white on each side of the tail. Its face is marked by a white band across the forehead and a thin, black stripe between eye and ear. The mona monkey is lively and is one of the most widely exhibited

Thursday, June 17, 2004

Affirmative Action

In the United States, an active effort to improve employment or educational opportunities for members of minority groups and for women. Affirmative action began as a government remedy to the effects of long-standing discrimination against such groups and has consisted of policies, programs, and procedures that give preferences to minorities and women in job

Wednesday, June 16, 2004

Black Legend

Spanish �Leyenda Negra� term indicating an unfavourable image of Spain and Spaniards, accusing them of cruelty and intolerance, formerly prevalent in the works of many non-Spanish, and especially Protestant, historians. Primarily associated with criticism of 16th-century Spain and the anti-Protestant policies of King Philip II (reigned 1556 - 98), the term was popularized by the Spanish historian

Tuesday, June 15, 2004

Hypophrygian Mode

In music, fourth of the eight medieval church modes. See church mode.

Monday, June 14, 2004

Masina, Giulietta

Masina began acting in student theatre productions when she was in her teens. Although she enrolled as a student

Sunday, June 13, 2004

Salghurid Dynasty

The Salghurids were one of the several dynasties of atabegs (notables who acted as guardians and tutors of infant Seljuq princes) who were deputized to govern Iranian provinces on behalf of Seljuq kings. The Salghurids in origin belonged to the Salor

Saturday, June 12, 2004


Spanish �Ibero � one of a prehistoric people of southern and eastern Spain who later gave their name to the whole peninsula. The waves of migrating Celtic peoples from the 8th to 6th century BC onward settled heavily in northern and central Spain, penetrated Portugal and Galicia, but left the indigenous Bronze Age Iberian people of the south and east intact. Greek geographers give the

Friday, June 11, 2004

China, Provincial government

At the outset of the Han dynasty very large areas were entrusted as kingdoms to the emperor's kinsmen while the central government administered the interior provinces as commanderies. But by c. 100 BC the Imperial government had deprived the kingdoms of their strength, and most of their lands had been incorporated as commanderies under the central government. Although

Thursday, June 10, 2004

French Literature, Secular drama

The earliest comic plays extant date from the second half of the 13th century. Le Gar�on et

Wednesday, June 09, 2004


In the social sciences, the study of current trends in order to forecast future developments. While the speculative and descriptive aspects of futurology are traceable to the traditions of utopian literature and science fiction, the methodology of the field originated in the �technological forecasting� developed near the end of World War II, of which Toward New

Tuesday, June 08, 2004

Muhsin, Zuhayr

A long-standing member of the Ba'th Party and a friend of Syrian leader Hafiz al-Assad, Muhsin worked as a teacher in Jordan and the Persian Gulf states

Monday, June 07, 2004

Paul, Wolfgang

German physicist who shared one-half of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1989 with the German-born American physicist Hans G. Dehmelt. (The other half of the prize was awarded to the American physicist Norman F. Ramsey.) Paul received his share of the prize for his development of the Paul trap - an electromagnetic device that captures ions (electrically

Sunday, June 06, 2004


Region, North Rhine-Westphalia Land (state), northwestern Germany. It is bounded on the north by the Ruhr River and its tributary, the M�hne, and on the south by the Sieg River and the Wester Forest, a mountainous area east of the Rhine. It lies to the east of the Bergisches Land (plateau) and has historically centred on the city of Arnsberg (q.v.). Its name (meaning �Bitter Land�) is

Saturday, June 05, 2004

Arenig Series

Also called �Arenigian Series, � the second of six divisions (in ascending order) constituting the Ordovician System, representing all those rocks deposited worldwide during the Arenigian Age (488 to 478 million years ago). The series' name is derived from the Arenig mountains in Gwynedd county in North Wales, which serve as the type area in Great Britain for rocks of this age. Welsh rock strata belonging

Friday, June 04, 2004

Rous, Peyton

Rous was educated at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, and at the University of Michigan. He joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University)

Thursday, June 03, 2004

Animal Interlace

In calligraphy, rich, fanciful decorative motif characteristic of work by the Hiberno-Saxon book artists of the early Middle Ages in the British Isles. Its intertwined, fantastic animal and bird forms are often densely and minutely detailed - an example in the Book of Kells (c. 800) contains 158 interlacements in a space of 0.25 square inch (1.61 square cm). Another work of comparable stylistic

Wednesday, June 02, 2004

Hinduism, Vaishnava Samhitas

These consist of two groups of texts: Vaikhanasa Samhitas and Pa�caratra Samhitas. The latter group is the prevailing one; more than 200 titles are known, though the official number is 108. Vaikhanasa Samhitas (collections of the Vaishnava school of Vaikhanasas, who were originally ascetics) seem to have embodied the original temple manuals for the Bhagavatas (devotees), which by the 11th

Tuesday, June 01, 2004

Peter V

He wished to convert the