Saturday, July 31, 2004

Tragedy, Corneille and Racine

Another attempt to bring back the ancient form had been going on for some time across the English Channel, in France. The French Classical tragedy, whose monuments are Pierre Corneille's Cid (1637) and Jean Racine's B�r�nice (1670) and Ph�dre (1677), made no attempt to be popular in the way of the Elizabethan theatre. The plays were written by and for intellectual aristocrats, who came together

Friday, July 30, 2004


Osaka lies along Osaka Bay at the eastern end of the Inland Sea, on the delta of the Yodo River. Its metropolitan

Thursday, July 29, 2004


Also called �(after 1981) Tamenghest, �formerly �Fort Laperrine, � town, southern Algeria. Located in the mountainous Ahaggar (Hoggar) region on the Wadi Tamanghasset, the town originated as a military outpost, guarding trans-Saharan trade routes. It has become an important way station on the north-south asphalt road called the Trans-Sahara Highway via northern Algeria, which reached Tamanghasset in 1980. Although the desert climate

Wednesday, July 28, 2004

Trigonal System

Components of crystals in the trigonal system, like those of the hexagonal system, are located by reference to four axes - three of equal length with 120� intersections and one perpendicular to the plane

Tuesday, July 27, 2004


Region of northern France on the border of Normandie, mainly in the east of the Orne d�partement, with extensions into neighbouring d�partements. Formerly a county, it was united to the French crown in 1525. It is largely hilly country, the Perche Hills having summits as high as 1,000 feet (300 m). Perche is a district of pastoral farming and dairying, famous for its breed of draft horses

Monday, July 26, 2004


Formerly (until 1966) �Costermansville � city, eastern Congo (Kinshasa), central Africa, on a peninsula extending into Lake Kivu. It is a commercial and industrial centre, a lake port, and a tourist city with road access northwest to Kisangani, southwest to Kasai, south to Lubumbashi and Katanga province, and to East Africa. There is also air transport to other Congolese cities and to Burundi. The region is known

Sunday, July 25, 2004

Wiles, Andrew John

Wiles was educated at Merton College, Oxford (B.A., 1974), and Clare College, Cambridge (Ph.D., 1980). Following a junior research

Saturday, July 24, 2004

Kalahari, Animal life

The animal life of the Kalahari is also richer and more varied in the north than in the south. Yet even in the arid south, many individuals of several species stay for long periods of the year despite the absence of surface water. The principal species found in the south are springbok, gnu (wildebeest), and hartebeest - all of which occasionally are present in great

Friday, July 23, 2004

Frederick Iii

Frederick adopted Lutheranism in 1546 and Calvinism somewhat later. His Calvinism and his opposition to the Habsburg emperors made his electoral position insecure,

Thursday, July 22, 2004


Also spelled �Alwur, � city, northeastern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. The city is surrounded by a wall and moat and is dominated by a fort on a conical hill against a backdrop of a range of hills. Alwar was made the capital of Alwar princely state in 1775; it contains the 14th-century tomb of Tarang Sultan (the brother of Firuz Shah) and several ancient mosques. The palace, which adjoins a picturesque

Wednesday, July 21, 2004


Most species have narrow, untoothed leaves at the base of the plant and fragrant flowers that usually are blue

Tuesday, July 20, 2004

Celebes Sea

Indonesian �Laut Sulawesi� sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sea and Mindanao Island, on the east by the Sangi Islands chain, on the south by Celebes (Sulawesi), and on the west by Borneo. It extends 420 miles (675 km) north-south by 520 miles (837 km) east-west and occupies a total surface area of 110,000 square miles (280,000 square km). The sea, opening southwest through the Makassar Strait

Monday, July 19, 2004

Mclean, Jackie

From a musical family, McLean became known as a fine altoist in his teens and first recorded in 1951, with Miles Davis, playing �Dig� (also called �Donna�), a McLean theme that became a jazz standard. McLean played in Charles Mingus' and Art Blakey's groups, then

Sunday, July 18, 2004

Strang, Gunnar Georg Emanuel

Strang was a self-educated agricultural labourer and trade-union organizer who rose to become president of the Swedish Agricultural Workers' Union

Saturday, July 17, 2004

China, Sun Yat-sen and the United League

Sun's leadership in the league was far from undisputed. His understanding that the support of foreign powers was indispensable for Chinese revolution militated against the anti-imperialist trend of the young intellectuals. Only half-heartedly accepted was the principle of people's livelihood, or socialism, one of his Three Principles. Though various evaluations

Friday, July 16, 2004

Pitt-rivers, Augustus Henry Lane-fox

Archaeologist often called the �father of British archaeology,� who stressed the need for total excavation of sites, thorough stratigraphic observation and recording, and prompt and complete publication. Like Sir Flinders Petrie, Pitt-Rivers adopted a sociological approach to the study of excavated objects

Thursday, July 15, 2004


Byname of �Friend,� member of a Christian group (the Society of Friends, or Friends church) that stresses the guidance of the Holy Spirit, that rejects outward rites and an ordained ministry, and that has a long tradition of actively working for peace and opposing war. George Fox, founder of the society in England, recorded that in 1650 �Justice Bennet of Derby first called us Quakers because

Wednesday, July 14, 2004

Lenz's Law

Thrusting a pole of a permanent bar magnet through a coil of wire, for example, induces an electric current in the coil; the current in turn sets

Tuesday, July 13, 2004

Brunei, Flag Of

Although a few countries have half of their national flag in yellow, Brunei alone has a yellow background. The avoidance of yellow in other flags may in part be due to the association of the colour with royalty, as in the former imperial flags of Austria and Russia, and with disease (yellow flags are internationally recognized as symbols of quarantine). Among the smaller

Monday, July 12, 2004

Environmental Works, Developments in supply systems

Water was an important factor in the location of the earliest settled communities, and the evolution of public water supply systems is tied directly to the growth of cities. In the development of water resources beyond their natural condition in rivers, lakes, and springs, the digging of shallow wells was probably the earliest innovation. As the need for water increased

Saturday, July 10, 2004

Vale Royal

Borough, administrative and historic county of Cheshire, England. It is named for a great Cistercian abbey built by Edward I near the present village of Whitegate. The borough is centred on the Cheshire salt field in the middle of the county. Its two main towns, Winsford and Northwich, were both founded on salt production; Northwich was important for salt as early as

Friday, July 09, 2004

Rachmaninoff, Sergey

Rachmaninoff's music, although written mostly in the 20th century, remains firmly entrenched in the 19th-century musical idiom. He was, in effect, the final expression of the tradition embodied by Tchaikovsky - a melodist of Romantic dimensions still writing in an era of explosive change and experimentation.

Thursday, July 08, 2004

Genda Minoru

Genda, a graduate of the Japanese Naval Academy (1924), was a fighter

Wednesday, July 07, 2004

La Ch�tardie, Jacques-joachim Trotti, Marquis De

La Ch�tardie entered French military service at an early age and rose through the ranks, becoming lieutenant (1721), major (1730), and colonel (1734). He performed well and received assignments to Holland and Prussia and in 1739 became ambassador to Russia. In order

Tuesday, July 06, 2004

'abd Allah Ibn Az-zubayr

As a youth Ibn az-Zubayr went on many of the military campaigns that marked the initial expansion

Monday, July 05, 2004

Celto-iberian Language

Also spelled �Celtiberian, � extinct Indo-European language of the western part of the Iberian Peninsula. Celto-Iberian was written in the Iberic script (borrowed from speakers of the non-Indo-European Iberian language in eastern and southern Spain) and is known primarily from a small number of coin inscriptions and an even smaller number of inscriptions on stone. Leading scholars believe

Sunday, July 04, 2004

Polenta Family

Italian noble family, named for its castle of Polenta (located in the Romagna, southwest of Cesena), which dominated the city-state of Ravenna from the end of the 13th century to the middle of the 15th. The family's ascendancy began with Guido da Polenta (d. 1310), known as Guido Minore, or Guido the Old, who led the Guelf, or pro-papal, faction in Ravenna against the Ghibelline, or pro-emperor,

Saturday, July 03, 2004


Also called �Triphane� a lithium aluminum silicate mineral (LiAlSi2O6) in the pyroxene family, an important ore of lithium and a source of ceramic materials. It is ordinarily found in lithium-bearing granite pegmatites. When brilliant and glassy, clear spodumene is valued as a semiprecious gem (more by collectors and museums than by the public, because its colour fades when it is exposed to

Friday, July 02, 2004


After Napoleon I's abdication (1814), many of his followers

Thursday, July 01, 2004


Also called �sea moth� any of about five species of small marine fishes comprising the family Pegasidae and the order Pegasiformes. Dragonfish are found in warm Indo-Pacific waters. They are small (to about 16 centimetres [6 1/2 inches] long), elongated fish encased in bony rings of armour. The armour is fused on the head and body but not on the tail, which is thus flexible. The pectoral