Tuesday, August 31, 2004

Aleandro, Girolamo

In 1520 Pope

Monday, August 30, 2004

Halepa, Pact Of

Also called �Treaty Of Halepa, Halepa �also spelled �Khal�pa, � convention signed in October 1878 at Khal�pa, a suburb of Canea, by which the Turkish sultan Abd�lhamid II (ruled 1876 - 1909) granted a large degree of self-government to Greeks in Crete as a means to quell their insurrection against Turkish overlords. It supplemented previous concessions to the Cretans - e.g., the Organic Law Constitution (1868) and the Cyprus Convention (July 4, 1878), which had been

Sunday, August 29, 2004

Shochiku Co., Ltd.

Leading Japanese motion-picture studio, the films of which are usually home-centred dramas aimed toward an audience of women. The company was formed in 1902 as a production company for kabuki performances. The business was expanded in 1920 to include motion-picture production, and, shortly afterward, the corporation established the Shochiku Kinema Company to train actors

Saturday, August 28, 2004

Cromwellian Chair

Sturdy, squarish chair with a leather back and seat, studded with brass-headed nails, made in England in the mid-17th century during the Puritan period and named after Oliver Cromwell. Because luxury and almost any kind of ornament were shunned in the prevailing climate of austerity, the only decoration was the pattern of bright nail heads and bobbin turning, a series

Friday, August 27, 2004

Deforest, John William

The son of a prosperous cotton manufacturer, DeForest did not go to college, owing to poor health, but traveled (1848 - 49) in the Middle East. He returned home to write a scholarly History of

Thursday, August 26, 2004

Anthraquinone Dye

Anthraquinone acid dyes contain sulfonic acid groups that render them soluble in water and substantive for wool and silk; that is, they have an affinity for these fibres

Wednesday, August 25, 2004


Also spelled �ciaconne� fiery and suggestive dance that appeared in Spain about 1600 and eventually gave its name to a musical form. Miguel de Cervantes, Francisco G�mez de Quevedo, and other contemporary writers imply a Mexican origin but do not indicate whether it was indigenous or a Spanish dance modified there. Apparently danced with castanets by a couple or by a woman alone, it

Tuesday, August 24, 2004


Any of a group of opiate proteins with pain-relieving properties that are found naturally in the brain. The main substances identified as endorphins include the enkephalins, beta-endorphin, and dynorphin, which were discovered in the 1970s by Roger Guillemin and other researchers. Endorphins are distributed in characteristic patterns throughout the nervous system,

Monday, August 23, 2004

Nicholas I

Russian �in full Nikolay Pavlovich � Russian emperor (1825 - 55), often considered the personification of classic autocracy; for his reactionary policies, he has been called the emperor who froze Russia for 30 years.

Sunday, August 22, 2004


The training of living trees and shrubs into artificial, decorative shapes. Thickly leaved evergreen shrubs are used in topiary; the best subjects are box, cypress, and yew, although others - such as rosemary, holly, and box honeysuckle - are used with success. Topiary is said to have been invented by a friend of the ancient Roman emperor Augustus and is known to have been

Saturday, August 21, 2004

Mahalwari System

For revenue purposes the name was applied to any compact area containing one or more villages, which were called �estates.� The

Friday, August 20, 2004

Argentina, Transitional period

The military government faced several urgent and difficult problems, including the decision of whether to remain neutral or choose sides in the war. It also had to decide between the restoration of a representative system and the installation of a long-term military dictatorship. General Arturo Rawson was made president but resigned after two days when his anticonservative

Thursday, August 19, 2004

Xie Jun

At the age of six Xie began to play Chinese chess, and by the age of 10 she had become the girls' champion of Beijing. At the urging of government authorities, she soon began playing Western chess. Despite indifferent training opportunities, Xie

Wednesday, August 18, 2004

Xia Gui

Xia's birth and death dates are unknown. According to most Chinese sources, however, he served in the Imperial Academy (Yuhuayuan) under the emperor Ning Zong (reigned 1194/95 - 1224/25), eventually attaining the rank of daizhao, or �painter in attendance,� and being awarded the highest honour a court painter could receive, the Golden Belt. The earliest source of information on him, however,

Tuesday, August 17, 2004

O'shaughnessy, Arthur

O'Shaughnessy became a copyist in the library of the British Museum at age 17 and later became a herpetologist in the museum's zoological department. He published four volumes of verse: An Epic of Women (1870), Lays of France (1872), Music and Moonlight (1874), and Songs of a Worker (1881). O'Shaughnessy

Monday, August 16, 2004

France, History Of, France from 1789 to 1815

The best overview of the period is D.M.G. Sutherland, France 1789 - 1815: Revolution and Counter-Revolution (1985). General surveys of the French Revolution include William Doyle, The Oxford History of the French Revolution (1989); and Norman Hampson, A Social History of the French Revolution (1963, reprinted 1982). The origins and the first phase of the Revolution are treated in Michel Vovelle, The Fall of the French Monarchy, 1787 - 1792 (1984; originally published in French, 1972). The best book on the Terror is still R.R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution (1941, reissued 1989). Martyn Lyons, France Under the Directory (1975), surveys the Revolution's later phase. Fran�ois Furet and Mona Ozouf (eds.), A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (1989; originally published in French, 1988), is an important and original collection of short essays on selected events, actors, institutions, ideas, and historians of the French Revolution. Lynn Hunt, Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution (1984), analyzes the imagery and sociology of revolutionary politics. Notable thematic studies include Georges Lefebvre, The Great Fear of 1789: Rural Panic in Revolutionary France (1973, reissued 1989; originally published in French, 1932); P.M. Jones, The Peasantry in the French Revolution (1988); Albert Soboul, The Parisian Sans-culottes and the French Revolution, 1793 - 4, trans. from French (1964, reprinted 1979); George Rud�, The Crowd in the French Revolution (1959, reprinted 1986); John McManners, The French Revolution and the Church (1969, reprinted 1982); Jean-Paul Bertaud, The Army of the French Revolution (1988; originally published in French, 1979); Emmet Kennedy, A Cultural History of the French Revolution (1989); and Jacques Godechot, The Counter-Revolution: Doctrine and Action, 1789 - 1804 (1971, reissued 1981; originally published in French, 1961). The international dimension of the Revolution is interpreted in R.R. Palmer, The World of the French Revolution (1971). The best biography of a revolutionary leader is Leo Gershoy, Bertrand Bar�re: A Reluctant Terrorist (1962). A lively introduction to the Napoleonic era is J. Christopher Herold, The Age of Napoleon (1963, reprinted 1987). Informative volumes on the life and times of Napoleon include Felix Markham, Napoleon (1963); and Jean Tulard, Napoleon: The Myth of the Saviour (1984; originally published in French, 1977). The best volume on the Napoleonic regime in France is Louis Bergeron, France Under Napoleon (1981; originally published in French, 1972). Owen Connelly, Blundering to Glory: Napoleon's Military Campaigns (1987), is a critical and incisive analysis. For the views of historians across the generations, see Pieter Geyl, Napoleon: For and Against (1949, reissued 1976; originally published in Dutch, 1946).

Sunday, August 15, 2004

Becquerel, Henri

He was a member of a scientific family extending through several generations, the most notable being his grandfather Antoine-C�sar Becquerel (1788 - 1878), his father,

Saturday, August 14, 2004


Crisp raised cake baked in a waffle iron, a hinged metal griddle with a honeycombed or fancifully engraved surface that allows a thin layer of batter to cook evenly and crisply. Baking powder is the typical leavening in American waffles, and yeast waffles are eaten in Belgium and France. In the United States and Canada waffles are a popular breakfast food, topped with

Friday, August 13, 2004

p-n Junction

In electronics, the interface within diodes, transistors, and other semiconductor devices between two different types of materials called p-type and n-type semiconductors. These materials are formed by the deliberate addition of impurities to pure semiconductor materials, such as silicon. Semiconductors of p-type contain holes, mobile vacancies in the electronic

Thursday, August 12, 2004


Offspring of parents that differ in genetically determined traits. The parents may be of different species, genera, or (rarely) families. The term hybrid, therefore, has a wider application than the terms mongrel or crossbreed, which usually refer to animals or plants resulting from a cross between two races, breeds, strains, or varieties of the same species. There are

Wednesday, August 11, 2004


Also spelled �Iuzhno-sakhalinsk, or Juzno-sachalinsk, � city and administrative centre of Sakhalin oblast (province), far eastern Russia. It lies in the south of Sakhalin Island on the Susuya River, 26 miles (42 km) north of the port of Korsakov. Originally the Japanese settlement of Toyohara, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk passed to the Soviet Union in 1945 and was given its present name in 1946. It is a communications hub, with railways that extend to

Tuesday, August 10, 2004


Lute tablatures were of three main varieties, French, Italian (used also in Spain), and German. The French type, used c. 1500 - c. 1800, proved to be the most practical and contained an important

Monday, August 09, 2004


Community, Piura departmento, northwestern Peru, on the Pacific Ocean. Rebuilt and developed by the International Petroleum Company (which provided workers' housing, hospitals, and schools), it is a refining and shipping port for Peru's main oil-producing region. To the southwest, near the foot of the La Brea Mountains, is the site of the pits (where Spaniards boiled tar

Sunday, August 08, 2004


(class Bryopsida, or Musci), any of at least 10,000 species of small, spore-bearing land plants (division Bryophyta) distributed throughout the world except in salt water. Valvate mosses constitute the subclass Andreaeidae, and peat mosses compose the subclass Sphagnidae. The large subclass Bryidae constitutes most species of mosses, but the subclass Polytrichidae

Saturday, August 07, 2004


City, Ciudad Real province, in the autonomous community (region) of Castile-La Mancha, south central Spain. The city lies on the left bank of the R�o Jabal�n, southeast of the city of Ciudad Real. Situated in a fertile area of La Mancha plain, it is the centre of a grape-growing district, the wines of which are among the most popular in Spain. Related industries are vinegar making,

Friday, August 06, 2004

Tabari, At-

Franz Rosenthal, A History of Muslim Historiography, 2nd ed. (1968); O. Loth, �Tabari's Korankommentar,� Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 35:588 - 628 (1881). A French translation of the abridged Persian version was made by H. Zotenberg, entitled Chronique de Tabari (reprinted 1958). E. Marin translated a portion of the History into English, entitled The Reign of al-Mu'tasim (1951). The Commentary has been edited by M.M. and A.M. Shakir (1954 - ) under the title Tafsir al-Tabari. M.J. de Goeje, et al. edited the History, known as the Annals, 15 volumes with index and glossary (1879 - 1901, reprinted 1964). A new translation of the History is in progress. The first three volumes are The 'Abbasid Revolution, trans. and ed. by John Alden Williams (1985); The Return of the Caliphate to Baghdad, trans. and ed. by Franz Rosenthal (1985); and The Crisis of the 'Abbasid Caliphate, trans. and ed. by George Saliba (1985).

Thursday, August 05, 2004

Jawf, Al-

Town and oasis, northern Saudi Arabia. It lies at the northern edge of an-Nafud desert near the source of the Wadi as-Sirhan. Formerly considered a part of the Jabal Shammar region, the oasis now lies within the northern reaches of the Hejaz. The town is strategically located on an ancient caravan route between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean, and it has long been

Wednesday, August 04, 2004


Also called �Xhosa-ciskei, or Xosa-ciskei, � former republic (though never internationally recognized as such) that was inhabited principally by Xhosa-speaking people in southern Africa. It bordered the Indian Ocean on the southeast and was bounded by the Republic of South Africa on the southwest, northwest, and northeast. A fingerlike extension of South African territory on the northeast separated Ciskei

Tuesday, August 03, 2004

Lipset, Seymour Martin

After receiving his B.S. from City College of New York (1943), Lipset was a lecturer at the University of Toronto (1946 - 48) and then an assistant professor at the University of California,

Monday, August 02, 2004

Voznesensky, Andrey Andreyevich

Voznesensky spent his early childhood in the city of Vladimir. In 1941 he moved with his mother and sister to Kurgan, in the Ural Mountains, while his father assisted in the evacuation of factories from besieged Leningrad. The profound

Sunday, August 01, 2004


Also spelled �Saragossa, � provincia, in the comunidad aut�noma (�autonomous community�) of Aragon, northeastern Spain. Together with the provinces of Huesca and Teruel, it formed the old kingdom of Aragon. It extends north and south of the middle course of the Ebro River; it reaches the foot of the Pyrenees (north) and is bounded west by the provinces of Navarra, Logro�o, and Soria, south by Guadalajara