Thursday, September 30, 2004

Charpak, Georges

Charpak's family moved from Poland to Paris when he was seven years old. During World War II Charpak served in the resistance and was imprisoned by Vichy authorities in 1943. In 1944 he was deported

Wednesday, September 29, 2004

Binding Energy

Nuclear binding energy is the energy required to separate an atomic nucleus

Tuesday, September 28, 2004


Ancient Greek city situated on the Chalcidice Peninsula of northwestern Greece. It lay about 1.5 miles (2.5 km) inland from the Gulf of Torone of the Adriatic Sea. A Thracian people called the Bottiaeans inhabited Olynthus until 479 BC, when Persian forces killed them and handed the town over to local Greeks from Chalcidice. Though dominated for a time thereafter by Athens, Olynthus

Monday, September 27, 2004


Species of sea bass (q.v.).

Sunday, September 26, 2004


In Roman religion, personification of a respectful and faithful attachment to gods, country, and relatives, especially parents. Pietas had a temple at Rome, dedicated in 181 BC, and was often represented on coins as a female figure carrying a palm branch and a sceptre or as a matron casting incense upon an altar, sometimes accompanied by a stork, the symbol of filial piety.

Saturday, September 25, 2004

Antarctica, Relief

Effects of glacial erosion and deposition dominate

Friday, September 24, 2004

T�rgu Jiu

Also spelled �T�rgu Jiu� city, capital of Gorj judet (county), southwestern Romania, on the Jiu River. Formerly a Roman settlement, T�rgu Jiu was the property of boyars until the 19th century. After World War II, the city developed rapidly from an agricultural market town into an industrial centre producing timber, clothing, cigarettes, and foodstuffs. It lies in the southern part of the Petrosani

Thursday, September 23, 2004


The people are agricultural, using the plow or digging stick to plant staples of corn, beans, and squash,

Wednesday, September 22, 2004

Hay, Sir Gilbert

Hay may have been the Gylbertus Hay named in the registers of St. Andrews University in 1418 and 1419. That he received a degree as a master of arts, that he became a knight, and that he was at some time chamberlain to

Tuesday, September 21, 2004

Fischer, Emil

Educated at the universities of Bonn and Strasbourg (Ph.D., 1874), Fischer held several posts before becoming professor of chemistry at the University of Berlin in 1892. Under his direction,

Monday, September 20, 2004


In China, a rationalistic revival of Confucian philosophy in the 11th century AD that exercised profound influence on Chinese thought for the next 800 years. See Confucianism.

Sunday, September 19, 2004


The Tiv are subsistence farmers whose main crops are yams, millet, and sorghum, all of which are eaten as porridge

Saturday, September 18, 2004

Van Heusen, Jimmy

Van Heusen worked as a staff pianist at music publishing companies in New York City before collaborating with lyricist Eddie de Lange to write songs, including the popular �Darn That

Friday, September 17, 2004

Switzerland, Neutrality and internal challenges

During the 1850s the young republic clashed with Prussia over sovereignty in Neuch�tel, but the Prussian king finally renounced his hereditary rights to the former principality. Otherwise, Switzerland's foreign relations were relatively untroubled in the 19th century. The country adopted a policy of armed but cautious neutrality as the best strategy for a nation

Thursday, September 16, 2004

Armenian Catholic Church

An Eastern-rite member of the Roman Catholic church. The Armenians embraced Christianity about AD 300 and were the first people to do so as a nation. About 50 years after the Council of Chalcedon (451), the Armenians repudiated the Christological decisions of the council and became the Armenian Apostolic (Orthodox) Church, a body that basically adhered to the doctrinal beliefs

Wednesday, September 15, 2004


Also spelled �Hageladas� sculptor said to have been the teacher of Myron, Phidias, and Polyclitus. This tradition testifies to his wide fame but is historically doubtful.

Tuesday, September 14, 2004

Yun Shouping

Yun had an adventure-filled early life. Following the collapse

Monday, September 13, 2004

Badarian Culture

Although the Badarians apparently continued the agricultural and pastoral practices of the Tasians (see Tasian

Sunday, September 12, 2004

Ear, Human, Detection of angular acceleration: dynamic equilibrium

Because the three semicircular canals - superior, posterior, and horizontal - are positioned at right angles to one another, they are able to detect movements in three-dimensional space (see Anatomy of the human ear: Inner ear: Semicircular canals). When the head begins to rotate in any direction, the inertia of the endolymph causes it to lag behind, exerting pressure that

Saturday, September 11, 2004

Csokonai Vit�z, Mih�ly

Csokonai's early sympathies with the revolutionary trends of his age made life difficult for him in the wave of reaction that accompanied Napoleon's invasion of Europe. Dismissed after a brief career as an assistant master at the Calvinist college in Debrecen, he became a wandering

Friday, September 10, 2004

Gambia, The, History Of

History of the area from precolonial times to the present.

Thursday, September 09, 2004

Carnivore, Form and function

Basically, the difference in the tooth pattern of pinnipeds, in comparison to the dentition of terrestrial carnivores, reflects an adaptation toward grasping and tearing rather than chewing. Thus there is less variation in the form of the different teeth (commonly said to be homodont, or �similar teeth�), and there tends to be a reduction in the number of teeth. There

Wednesday, September 08, 2004

Vitamin B Complex

Most of the B vitamins have been recognized

Tuesday, September 07, 2004


Pontypool was an early metalworking centre, with iron smelting dating back to 1577, and immigrants from Pontypool reputedly

Monday, September 06, 2004

Cuba, Revolution

Batista's fall resulted as much from internal decay as from the challenges of Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement (commemorating Castro's failed attack on the Moncada military base in Santiago on July 26, 1953) or from the Federation of University Students and other groups opposed to Batista's rule. Castro had been a legislative candidate for elections in 1952 that were aborted

Sunday, September 05, 2004

Rerum Novarum

Encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891 and considered by many conservative Roman Catholics to be extremely progressive. It enunciated the late 19th-century Roman Catholic position on social justice, especially in relation to the problems created by the Industrial Revolution, and it emphasized the church's right to make pronouncements on social issues as they related

Saturday, September 04, 2004


City, seat (1860) of Ashland county, extreme northern Wisconsin, U.S. It is a port on Chequamegon Bay of Lake Superior. A Jesuit mission was established there in 1665, but not until 1854 did Asaph Whittlesey settle the site, which he named for Henry Clay's Kentucky estate. In 1877 Ashland became the terminus of the first railroad of northern Wisconsin and developed with iron-mining and lumbering

Friday, September 03, 2004


Ocean racing began in 1866 with a match race held under NYYC rules from Sandy Hook, Conn., to Cowes, Isle of Wight, Eng., by three schooners of 32- to 32.6-metre length: Fleetwing, Vesta, and Henrietta. Henrietta, owned by the American newspaper publisher James Gordon Bennett, won in 13 days of sailing. The first single-sailor transatlantic voyage was made in a 6-metre boat by Alfred Johnson in

Thursday, September 02, 2004


City, York county, southwestern Maine, U.S., at the mouth of the Saco River opposite Biddeford. Founded with Biddeford in 1631 as a single plantation, it was the seat of Sir Ferdinando Gorges' government (1636 - 53) before passing to Massachusetts. It was called Saco until 1718 and Biddeford until it was separately incorporated (1762) as Pepperellboro Township. It developed a lumbering and seaport

Wednesday, September 01, 2004

Mental Disorder, Affective personality disorder

Three particular types of persistent mood disturbance can be described under this heading: (1) the trait of anxiety may be persistent and highly developed, so that the person encounters all new circumstances with fearful anticipation; (2) the chronic depressive personality is a gloomy pessimist who is skeptical in outlook and who may regard suffering as meritorious;