Sunday, October 31, 2004

Peninsular, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Spanish �peninsular�, plural �peninsulares�, also called �gachup�n�, or �chapet�n� any of the colonial residents of Latin America from the 16th through the early 19th century who had been born in Spain. The name refers to the Iberian Peninsula. Among the American-born in Mexico the peninsulars were contemptuously called gachupines (�those with spurs�) and in South America, chapetones (�tenderfeet�). They enjoyed the special favour of the Spanish crown and

Kirstein, Lincoln Edward

U.S. arts patron (b. May 4, 1907, Rochester, N.Y.--d. Jan. 5, 1996, New York, N.Y.), was a dance authority and cofounder and general director (1948-89) of the New York City Ballet. Together with choreographer George Balanchine, he changed the course of dance in the U.S. Their collaboration lasted until Balanchine's death in 1983. Kirstein was ambitious, financially independent, and keenly interested in high culture.

Saturday, October 30, 2004

Shah Shoja'

Shoja' ascended the throne in 1803 after a long fratricidal war. In 1809 he concluded an alliance with the British against an expected Franco-Russian invasion of India but, the following year, was overthrown by his

Philadelphus, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

genus of deciduous shrubs of the family Hydrangeaceae, including the popular garden forms commonly known as mock orange (from its characteristic orange-blossom fragrance) and sweet syringa. Philadelphus, comprising about 65 species, is native to northern Asia and Japan, the western United States, the southern Atlantic coast of the United States, and Mexico. These

Friday, October 29, 2004

Philanthropinum, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

late 18th-century school (1774 - 93) founded in Dessau, Germany, by the educator Johann Bernhard Basedow to implement the educational ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Aiming to foster in its students a humanitarian worldview and awareness of the community of interest among all people, it taught rich and poor boys together regardless of religious or class distinctions. The school

Shiel, Loch

Narrow lake, in the northwest Highlands of Scotland. About 17 miles (28 km) long, it extends ribbonlike from Glenfinnan southwestward and drains into the 3-mile- (5-km-) long River Shiel, which empties into Loch Moidart, a sea loch. The upper reaches of Loch Shiel, toward Glenfinnan, are bounded by wild and rough scenery, with steep mountains reaching elevations of about 3,000 feet (900 metres).

Thursday, October 28, 2004

Philastre, Paul-louis-f

French administrator and diplomat who, in the formative years of colonialism in French Indochina, played a crucial role in mitigating relations between the European colonialists and the French administration, on the one hand, and the indigenous population and its royal court at Hue, in central Vietnam. He was considered


Italian �Firenze, �Latin �Florentia, � city, capital of Firenze province and Toscana (Tuscany) region, central Italy. The city, located about 145 miles (230 kilometres) northwest of Rome, has, during its long history, been a republic, a seat of the duchy of Tuscany, and a capital (1865 - 71) of Italy. Florence was founded as a Roman military colony about the 1st century BC and during the 14th to 16th centuries achieved preeminence in commerce

Wednesday, October 27, 2004

Furniture, Italy

From the beginning of the Renaissance in the early 15th century, there were changes in furniture forms that were to spread over Europe. The growth of a wealthy and powerful bourgeoisie caused the building of more substantial houses and a demand for good furniture. Italian Renaissance furniture shows a strong architectural bias, and the purpose of the piece, as in Roman

Pien-tsung-lun, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Pinyin �Bianzonglun� (Chinese: �Discussions of Essentials�), treatise by Hsieh Ling-yun, an early Chinese Buddhist intellectual, valued chiefly as one of the few sources of information about the author's eminent teacher, Tao-sheng (d. 434). According to Tao-sheng, enlightenment is a sudden and all-encompassing experience, rather than a gradual process as described by his contemporaries. This assertion,

Tuesday, October 26, 2004

San Blas

Traditional region, eastern Panama, stretching about 100 miles (160 km) along the Caribbean Sea from the Colombian border to the Gulf of San Blas. The narrow strip of land includes the San Blas (formerly Mulatas) Archipelago. Agriculture - chiefly coconuts, yams, and plantains - and fishing are the principal economic activities in San Blas. The population consists largely of

Powell, Michael (latham), The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Powell attended Dulwich College, London (1918 - 21). He directed his first film, Two Crowded Hours, in 1931. During the 1930s he directed over 20 low-budget, quickly made films before producer Alexander Korda teamed him with Hungarian-born screenwriter Emeric

Monday, October 25, 2004

Catargiu, Lascar

In 1858 Catargiu served on the Moldavian divan ad hoc (representative commission) formed to determine the future political organization of the Danubian principalities - Moldavia and Walachia - and in

Price-mars, Jean, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Among his ethnological writings is Ainsi parla l'oncle (1928; new ed., 1954; �Thus Spoke the Uncle�), a collection of essays

Sunday, October 24, 2004


In Greek legend, the daughter born of the unwittingly incestuous union of Oedipus (q.v.) and his mother, Jocasta. After her father blinded himself upon discovering that Jocasta was his mother and that, also unwittingly, he had slain his father, Antigone and her sister Ismene served as Oedipus' guides, following him from Thebes into exile until his death near Athens. Returning

Price, Reynolds, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Price grew up in small towns and attended Duke University in Durham, N.C. (A.B. 1955), where the works of Eudora Welty became a primary influence on his writing. After receiving a B.Litt. degree in 1958 from the University of Oxford in England, he began his

Saturday, October 23, 2004


French national theatre created in 1920 to bring theatre to the general public. Its first director, Firmin G�mier, had been the director of the Th��tre Antoine and had made a number of attempts to create a people's theatre. Initially the TNP offered productions from the other national companies in a large hall with inexpensive tickets. It had no acting company, could not

Price, Sammy, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Price first toured as a dancer before working in bands in the Southwest and Midwest during the 1920s and '30s. He moved to New York City in 1937, where he became a staff musician

Friday, October 22, 2004

Swan Hill

City, northern Victoria, Australia, on the Murray River, northwest of Melbourne. It is the chief market centre for the southern section of the irrigated Riverina district of New South Wales. The site was named in the 1830s by the explorer Thomas (later Sir Thomas) Mitchell, who was kept sleepless there by the calls of swans. Settled in 1846 by sheepherders, the community prospered

Thursday, October 21, 2004

Qoboza, Percy (peter), The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

After studying theology in Basutoland (now Lesotho) and at Pax Training College in Pietersburg (1959), Qoboza turned to journalism and joined the staff of the World (1963); he became editor in 1974. Under his leadership,

Ibert, Jacques

Ibert studied at the Paris Conservatory and in 1919 won the Prix de Rome for his cantata Le Po�te et la f�e (�The Poet and the Fairy�). In Rome he composed his most popular work, the symphonic suite Escales (1922; �Ports of Call�). From 1937 until 1960 Ibert was director

Wednesday, October 20, 2004

Quadros, J

Quadros graduated from the University of S�o Paulo in 1939. He practiced law and taught Portuguese


German �Pietismus � influential religious reform movement that began among German Lutherans in the 17th century. It emphasized personal faith against the main Lutheran church's perceived stress on doctrine and theology over Christian living. Pietism quickly spread and later became concerned with social and educational matters. As a phenomenon of personal religious renewal, its

Tuesday, October 19, 2004

Atlanta Campaign

In the American Civil War, an important series of battles in Georgia (May - September 1864) that eventually cut off a main Confederate supply centre and influenced the Federal presidential election of 1864. By the end of 1863, with Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Vicksburg, Mississippi, firmly under the control of the North, Atlanta, an important Confederate

Monday, October 18, 2004

Raby, Al, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Raby, a grade-school dropout, taught himself to read when he was a teenager. He later graduated from Chicago Teachers College (1960) and attended the University of Chicago


City and seaport, Rostov oblast (province), southwestern Russia. It lies on the northern coast of Taganrog Gulf of the Sea of Azov. Founded as a fortress and naval base in 1698 by Peter I the Great, Taganrog developed in the 19th century as a grain-exporting port. Although overshadowed by Rostov-na-Donu, it is still a significant port for the Donets Basin coalfield and industrial

Sunday, October 17, 2004

Rackham, Arthur, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Reared in London, Rackham enrolled in evening classes at the Lambeth School of Art in 1884 and spent seven years studying there while also working full-time in an insurance office. While a staff artist for a newspaper, the Westminster



Saturday, October 16, 2004

Rescue Mission, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

also called �Inner Mission, � Christian religious organization established to provide spiritual, physical, and social assistance to the poor and needy. It originated in the city mission movement among evangelical laymen and ministers early in the 19th century. The work of rescue missions resembles that of settlement houses, institutional churches, and charitable societies, but rescue missions

Friday, October 15, 2004

Roberts, Richard, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Roberts began his career as an uneducated quarryman. He had remarkable mechanical ability, however, and worked at various times for the industrialist John Wilkinson and the inventor Henry Maudslay. He was one of the inventors of the metal planer and made

Computers, The Intel 4004

Intel was one of several semiconductor companies to emerge in Silicon Valley, having spun off from Fairchild Semiconductor.

Thursday, October 14, 2004


City, Perm oblast (province), west-central Russia. It is situated on the left bank of the Kama River at the head of the Kama Reservoir. Huge local deposits of salt and potassium have resulted in the city's development as one of the largest chemical centres of Russia, producing nitrogenous fertilizers, potash, nitric and sulfuric acids, soda, chlorine, titanium sponge, and

Robertsport, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism


Wednesday, October 13, 2004


The foundations of narratology

Roddenberry, Gene, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Roddenberry briefly attended Los Angeles City College, flew B-17 bombers during World War II, and was an airline

Tuesday, October 12, 2004

Mother Goddess

Any of a variety of feminine deities and maternal symbols of creativity, birth, fertility, sexual union, nurturing, and the cycle of growth. The term also has been applied to figures as diverse as the so-called Stone Age Venuses and the Virgin Mary. Because motherhood is one of the universal human realities, there is no culture that has not employed some maternal symbolism

Monday, October 11, 2004


Gemeente (commune), Noord-Holland provincie, western Netherlands. It lies along the Ring Canal, which borders the reclaimed Haarlem Lake polder, drained between 1840 and 1852. Heemstede is chiefly a residential suburb for Amsterdam and Haarlem. Many dunes in the vicinity have been leveled, and the land is used for bulb cultivation. Among the town's 17th- and 18th-century country houses

Sunday, October 10, 2004

Chang Kuo-lao

Chang claimed to have been born in prehistoric times. Legends about him, however, seem to have accrued to a historical

Sackler, Arthur M., The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Sackler studied at New York University (B.S., 1933; M.D., 1937) and worked as a psychiatrist at Creedmore State Hospital in Queens, New York (1944 - 46), where in 1949 he founded the Creedmore Institute of Psychobiological Studies, a field in

Saturday, October 09, 2004

Quinet, Edgar

After moving to Paris in 1820, Quinet forsook the faith of his Protestant mother, became greatly attracted to German philosophy, and published in 1827 - 28, as his first major work, a translation of Herder's

Sannar Dam, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

also spelled �Sennar Dam, � dam impounding the Blue Nile River for irrigation at the town of Sannar in The Sudan. Completed in 1925, it is 9,925 feet (3,025 m) long with a maximum height of 130 feet (40 m) and irrigates cotton and other crops of the plain of al-Jazirah (Gezira).

Friday, October 08, 2004

Anarchism, Poetry and prose

Anarchist presses published an enormous quantity of verse - indeed, before 1960 they published more poetry than all other forms of creative writing put together. Among the finest poets of anarchism was Voltairine de Cleyre, whom Emma Goldman considered the �most gifted and brilliant anarchist woman America ever produced.� Although the anarchist themes of de Cleyre's

Sarian, Martiros (sergeevich), The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Sarian received training in painting at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture (1897 - 1904), where among his teachers were the noted realist artists Konstantin Korovin and Valentin Serov. Soon Sarian was exhibiting his

Thursday, October 07, 2004

Italic Languages

Fundamental works on Osco-Umbrian, most with selected texts, include Robert von Planta, Grammatik der oskisch-umbrischen Dialekte, 2 vol. (1892 - 97, reissued 1973); Carl Darling Buck, A Grammar of Oscan and Umbrian, new ed. (1928, reprinted 1995); Gino Bottiglioni, Manuale dei dialetti italici: Osco, Umbro, e dialetti minori (1954); A. Ernout, Le dialecte ombrien: lexique du vocabulaire des �Tables Eugubines� et des inscriptions (1961); and Gerhard Meiser, Lautgeschichte der umbrischen Sprache (1986). A detailed treatment of Paelignian, one of the central Oscan �minor dialects,� is Rafael Jim�nez Zamudio, Estudio del dialecto peligno y su entorno ling��stico (1986). The most complete edition of Osco-Umbrian and Faliscan texts is Emil Vetter, Handbuch der italischen Dialekte, vol. 1, Texte mit Erkl�rung, Glossen, W�rterverzeichnis (1953); it is supplemented by Paolo Poccetti, Nuovi documenti italici (1979). Special studies of some of the more important Oscan texts include Annalisa Franchi De Bellis, Le iovile capuane (1981), and Il cippo abellano (1988). The most accurate text of the Iguvine Tables is found in Aldo L. Prosdocimi, Le tavole iguvine, vol. 1 (1984), with introduction and notes in Italian. Special studies of the Iguvine Tables include James Wilson Poultney, The Bronze Tables of Iguvium (1959); and Giacomo Devoto (ed.), Tabulae Iguvinae, rev. ed. (1940), in Latin. The authoritative edition of the South Picene texts is Anna Marinetti, Le iscrizioni sudpicene (1985 - ); Ignacio-Javier Adiego Lajara, Protosabelio, osco-umbro, sudpiceno (1992), in Spanish, is also useful. A grammatical description of Faliscan with many of the texts is provided by Gabriella Giacomelli, La lingua falisca (1963). Similar treatment is given to Venetic in G.B. Pellegrini and Aldo L. Prosdocimi, La lingua venetica, 2 vol. (1967); Michel Lejeune, Manuel de la langue v�n�te (1974); and Giulia Fogolari et al., I Veneti antichi: lingua e cultura (1988). Important studies of onomastic material (so prominent in the Italic language texts) include, for Oscan, Michel Lejeune, L'anthroponymie osque (1976); and for Venetic, Michel Lejeune, Ateste � l'heure de la romanisation (�tude anthroponymique) (1978); and J�rgen Untermann, Die venetischen Personennamen, 2 vol. (1961). Questions of ancient Italic poetics are treated in Calvert Watkins, How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics (1995), especially chapters 10 and 17 - 20.

Scad, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

any of several species of fishes in the family Carangidae (order Perciformes), which also includes the jacks, amberjacks, and pompanos. The name scad is usually restricted to certain species in the genera Decapterus, Selar, and Trachurus. The half dozen species are marine and occur along the Atlantic coast of the Americas, except for the Mexican scad (D. scombrinus), which

Wednesday, October 06, 2004


One of the phonetically distinct variants of a phoneme (q.v.). The occurrence of one allophone rather than another is usually determined by its position in the word (initial, final, medial, etc.) or by its phonetic environment. Speakers of a language often have difficulty in hearing the phonetic differences between allophones of the same phoneme, because these differences

Schaffner, Franklin (james), The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

The son of Protestant American missionaries, Schaffner lived in the United States after the age of five and attended Franklin

Tuesday, October 05, 2004

China, Local government

The Ming state system was built upon a foundation of institutions inherited from the T'ang and Sung dynasties and modified by the intervening dynasties of conquest from the north, especially the Y�an. The distinctive new patterns of social and administrative organization that emerged in Ming times persisted, in their essential features, through the Ch'ing dynasty

Monday, October 04, 2004

Fosse Way

Major Roman road that traversed Britain from southwest to northeast. It ran from the mouth of the River Axe in Devon by Axminster and Ilchester (Lindinae) to Bath (Aquae Sulis) and Cirencester, thence straight for 60 miles (100 km) to High Cross (Venonae), where it intersected Watling Street, and on to Leicester (Ratae). After crossing the River Trent near Newark, it reached Ermine

Sunday, October 03, 2004

Duck Lake

Town, central Saskatchewan, Canada. It lies between the North and South Saskatchewan rivers, 33 miles (53 km) southwest of Prince Albert. Originally settled about 1870 on nearby Duck Lake, the town was the site of the first clash (March 26, 1885) of the Riel (North West) Rebellion between M�tis (people of mixed American Indian and French or Scottish ancestry) led by Gabriel Dumont and a detachment

Saturday, October 02, 2004

Sharqiyah, Ash-

English �Eastern� region, eastern Saudi Arabia. The region includes most of the desert Rub' al-Khali (the Empty Quarter) and extends southward from a neutral zone jointly administered with Kuwait to indefinite borders with Yemen and Oman. It is bounded by Kuwait on the north, the Persian Gulf on the east, and the Ar-Riyad region on the west. Ash-Sharqiyah consists mainly of an undulating plain

Friday, October 01, 2004


Disturbance of fructose metabolism resulting from a hereditary disorder or intolerance. Normally, fructose is first metabolized in the body to fructose-1-phosphate by a specific organic catalyst or enzyme called fructokinase. In fructosuria this particular enzyme is defective, and the concentration of fructose increases in the blood and urine. There are no