Tuesday, November 30, 2004

Macdowell Colony, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

After Edward's death

Alaska, Cultural life

Alaska's past, including the arts and crafts of its native peoples, is a major influence in Alaskan culture. Juneau is the site of the state's historical library and state museum. The university has a large museum, as do other communities, including Sitka, Haines, Valdez, and Nome. Eminent Alaskan artists have included both whites and Eskimos. Native ivory and wood carvings

Monday, November 29, 2004


Also spelled �Dendera� agricultural town on the west bank of the Nile, in Qina muhafazah (governorate), Upper Egypt. The modern town is built on the ancient site of Ta-ynt-netert (She of the Divine Pillar), or Tentyra. It was the capital of the sixth nome (province) of pharaonic Upper Egypt and was dedicated to the sky and fertility goddess Hathor. Her temple is one of the best preserved in Egypt. The present

Manas, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

(Sanskrit: �thought�), in Indian philosophy, the human �mind,� that faculty which coordinates sensory impressions before they are presented to the consciousness. Thus, when a person sees, hears, and smells an object - three different and not necessarily related impressions - the manas makes certain that he is conscious that it is the same object.

Sunday, November 28, 2004

Maxwell, Robert, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Virtually all of the young Hoch's Jewish family living in Czechoslovakia and Budapest died in the Nazi Holocaust, but he was able to make

Economic Affairs, International.

In late 1997 banks and other financial institutions in Southeast and East Asia fell like dominoes--one after another--as currencies and share prices collapsed in many of the much-admired "tiger" economies across the region. Beginning in July with the crash of Thailand's baht, the crisis spread to the Indonesian rupiah, Malaysian ringgit, and Philippine peso, all of which

Saturday, November 27, 2004

Mckean, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

The county was formed in

Pyramus And Thisbe

Hero and heroine of a Babylonian love story related by Ovid in his Metamorphoses. Though their parents refused to consent to their union, the lovers at last resolved to flee together and agreed to meet under a mulberry tree. Thisbe, first to arrive, was terrified by the roar of a lioness and took to flight. In her haste she dropped her veil, which the lioness tore to pieces

Friday, November 26, 2004

Melen, Ferit, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

After graduating from the School of Political Science at the University of Ankara, Melen returned to his native city of Van and entered


Contrary to earlier

Thursday, November 25, 2004

Mer, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

among the Cheremis and Udmurts (also called Votyaks), a district where people would gather periodically to hold religious festivals and perform sacrifices to nature gods. The word mer is derived from the Russian mir, �village community.� The people within the mer usually were of common origin; their customs were similar, and they may even have possessed names and ownership


City, capital of Catanzaro provincia and of Calabria regione, southern Italy, at an elevation of 1,125 feet (343 m) overlooking the Gulf of Squillace, southeast of Cosenza. Founded about the 10th century as Catasarion, a Byzantine town, it was taken in 1059 by the Norman leader Robert Guiscard. Invading peoples from the Saracens to the Swiss, Normans, and Angevins (house of Anjou) recognized

Wednesday, November 24, 2004

Perceptual Learning

Historically, perceptual learning has been the subject of vigorous debate.

Mercer, Joseph, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Mercer overcame spindly legs and bad knees to become an outstanding left-half with Everton (1931 - 46), the champions of Britain's Football League in 1939. That year he was selected to play for England, and while in the Army

Tuesday, November 23, 2004

Mercer, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

The county was created

Biblical Literature, II Enoch

Similar in content is II Enoch, or The Book of the Secrets of Enoch, which is preserved only in an Old Slavonic translation. The oldest text does not contain any Christian additions nor any passage from which it could be concluded that the book was written in Greek. Thus, the book could have been written originally in Hebrew or Aramaic, probably in the 1st century CE. The hero

Monday, November 22, 2004

Miles, Bernard, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Miles studied at Pembroke College, Oxford, and taught briefly before quitting to pursue an acting career. He made his professional


The radioactive isotope

Sunday, November 21, 2004

Animal Magnetism

A presumed intangible or mysterious force that is said to influence human beings. The term was applied by the German physician Franz Anton Mesmer to the hypnotism that he used in the treatment of patients. He believed that it was an occult force or invisible fluid emanating from his body and that, more generally, the force permeated the universe, deriving especially

Monel, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

any of a group of nickel-copper alloys, first developed in 1905, containing about 66 percent nickel and 31.5 percent copper, with small amounts of iron, manganese, carbon, and silicon. Stronger than pure nickel, Monel alloys are resistant to corrosion by many agents, including rapidly flowing seawater. They can be fabricated readily by hot- and cold-working, machining, and welding.

Saturday, November 20, 2004

Monocacy, Battle Of, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

(July 9, 1864), American Civil War engagement fought on the banks of the Monocacy River near Frederick, Md., in which Confederate troops under Lieutenant General Jubal A. Early routed Union forces under Major General Lewis Wallace. Although the Union forces were defeated, the delay caused by the battle gave General Ulysses S. Grant time to send reinforcements for the defense

Basel, Council Of

A general council of the Roman Catholic church held in Basel, Switz. It was called by Pope Martin V a few weeks before his death in 1431 and then confirmed by Pope Eugenius IV. Meeting at a time when the prestige of the papacy had been weakened by the Great Schism (1378 - 1417), it was concerned with two major problems: the question of papal supremacy and the Hussite heresy. (The Hussites were

Friday, November 19, 2004

Biblical Literature, The lawbook

The laws are the central core and purport of the book of Deuteronomy. They are couched in a hortatory, sermonic style that has led to their being categorized as preached law. Emphatic statements of what must or must not be done are connected with exhortations to fulfill these injunctions, pointing to the motivations and spirit in which they should be carried out. There

Moses, Sir Charles (joseph Alfred), The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Moses graduated from the Royal Military College at Sandhurst, Eng. (1918), and was stationed with the British army in Ireland before immigrating

Thursday, November 18, 2004

Augustine, Saint

None of Augustine's other works has the currency or readership of his two masterpieces. Of greatest interest are the following:

Wednesday, November 17, 2004

Murder, Inc., The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

in popular usage, an arm of the American national crime syndicate, founded in the 1930s to threaten, maim, or murder designated victims for a price; the organization lacked an official name. Murder, Inc., was headed by Louis �Lepke� Buchalter and later by Albert Anastasia, and its services were available to any syndicate member anywhere in the country. Most victims of Murder,


City, Perm oblast (province), western Russia. It lies at the confluence of the Sylva, Iren, and Shakva rivers, 45 miles (72 km) south of Perm city. Founded in 1648 as a fortress, Kungur became an important post on routes to Siberia. It also became a noted centre for handicraft industries, especially in alabaster and crystal. Kungur now has machine-building and light industries. In the vicinity

Tuesday, November 16, 2004

Nahyan, Shaykh Shakhbut Ibn Sultan An-, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

As ruler of the largest emirate within the British-controlled Trucial Coast, Shakhbut maintained friendly relations with the United Kingdom and successfully resisted territorial incursions in a prolonged border dispute with Saudi Arabia. He was


One of the most common laths is gypsum lath. It is manufactured with an air-entrained gypsum core sandwiched between two layers of fibrous absorbent

Monday, November 15, 2004

Raymond Terrace

Town, eastern New South Wales, Australia, on the east bank of the Hunter River (near its junction with the Williams), just north of Newcastle. Founded in the 1830s, the town was named after a member of an exploring expedition in 1812 led by Gov. Lachlan Macquarie. An important wool river port in the 1840s, Raymond Terrace was proclaimed a municipality and in 1937 merged into the Shire of Port

National Baptist Convention, U.s.a., Inc., The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

association of black Baptist churches formed in 1895 in Atlanta, Ga., from the merger of the Foreign Mission Baptist Convention (established 1880), the American National Baptist Convention (1886), and the Baptist National Education Convention (1893). A schism in 1915 resulted in the formation of the National Baptist Convention of America. In 1961 a dispute within the National Baptist Convention,

Sunday, November 14, 2004

Empiricism, Stricter senses

As a more strictly defined movement, Empiricism reflects certain fundamental distinctions and occurs in varying degrees.

National Museum Of Western Art, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

The basis of the collection was a group of more than 400 French paintings, sculptures, and drawings that had been collected by Matsukata Kojiro but held by the French government during World War II.

Saturday, November 13, 2004

Talavera De La Reina

Town, Toledo provincia, in the comunidad aut�noma (�autonomous community�) of Castile-La Mancha, central Spain, on the northern bank of the Tagus River near its confluence with the Alberche. The town originated as the Roman Caesarobriga and was conquered by King Alfonso VI in 1082. Alfonso XI gave it to his queen, Maria of Portugal, whence its appellation de la Reina (�of the

New Castle, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

county, northern Delaware, U.S., bounded by Pennsylvania to the north, New Jersey to the east (the Delaware River constituting the border), the Smyrna River to the south, and Maryland to the west. The county is bisected east-west by the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (completed 1829), around which are state parks and wildlife areas. Other waterways are the Christina River and the

Friday, November 12, 2004

Nordmeyer, Sir Arnold Henry, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Nordmeyer graduated from the University of Otago and served as a Presbyterian minister from 1925 until he entered the New Zealand Parliament in 1935. He helped draft the Social Security Act of 1938, which formed the basis for the nation's welfare system,

Chagres River

Spanish �R�o Chagres� stream in Panama forming part of the Panama Canal system. It rises in the Cordillera de San Blas, flows south-southwest, and broadens to form Madden Lake (22 square miles [57 square km]) at Madden Dam, which was built in 1935 for navigation, flood control, and hydroelectric power. Below the dam it continues southwest to Gamboa, where it joins the Panama Canal at the north end of the Gaillard

Thursday, November 11, 2004

Bradstreet, Anne

N�e �Anne Dudley� one of the first poets to write English verse in the American colonies. Long considered primarily of historical interest, she won critical acceptance in the 20th century as a writer of enduring verse, particularly for her sequence of religious poems, �Contemplations,� written

Wednesday, November 10, 2004


Member of the legislative body of a municipal corporation in England and the United States. In Anglo-Saxon England, ealdormen, or aldermen, were high-ranking officials of the crown who exercised judicial, administrative, or military functions. Earls, the governors of shires (counties), and other persons of distinction were among those who received the title of alderman.

Oak Bay, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

district municipality, southwestern British Columbia, Canada, on southeastern Vancouver Island. It is an eastern residential suburb of Victoria, the provincial capital, and is a popular retirement community, with one of the highest percentages of persons over 65 in Canada. Inc. 1906. Pop. (1991) 17,815.

Tuesday, November 09, 2004

Nutrition, Competition for sites of absorption by the cell

Since absorption of nutrients frequently occurs by way of active transport within cell membranes, an excess of one nutrient (A) may inhibit absorption of a second nutrient (B), if they share the same absorption pathway. In such cases, the apparent requirement for nutrient B increases; B, however, can sometimes be supplied in an alternate form that is able to enter the cell

Oannes, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

in Mesopotamian mythology, an amphibious being who taught mankind wisdom. Oannes, as described by the Babylonian priest Berosus, had the form of a fish but with the head of a man under his fish's head and under his fish's tail the feet of a man. In the daytime he came up to the seashore of the Persian Gulf and instructed mankind in writing, the arts, and the sciences. Oannes was

Monday, November 08, 2004

Onoe Shoroku Ii, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Yutaka Fujima made his debut at the age of five as Ushiwakamaru at the Teikoku Theatre in the kabuki drama Shusse Kagekiyo, about the 12th-century hero Taira no Kagekiyo. After starring in Neiboku


Proclus was reared at Xanthus in Lycia, and he studied philosophy under Olympiodorus the Elder at Alexandria. At Athens he studied under the Greek philosophers Plutarch and Syrianus,

Sunday, November 07, 2004

Orbison, Roy, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Raised in West Texas, Orbison formed his first musical group at age 13. He dropped out of college to pursue music, and as a member of the Teen-Kings

Optical Axis

The straight line passing through the geometrical centre of a lens and joining the two centres of curvature of its surfaces. Sometimes the optical axis of a lens is called its principal axis. The path of a light ray along this axis is perpendicular to the surfaces and, as such, will be unchanged. All other ray paths passing through a lens and its optical centre (the geometrical

Saturday, November 06, 2004

p-n Junction, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

in electronics, the interface within diodes, transistors, and other semiconductor devices between two different types of materials called p-type and n-type semiconductors. These materials are formed by the deliberate addition of impurities to pure semiconductor materials, such as silicon. Semiconductors of p-type contain holes, mobile vacancies in the electronic

Priesthood, Ancient Greece and Rome

The ancient Greeks were devoid of hierarchical institutions composed of men and women through whom the gods were approached, though priests and priestesses could be found in many places engaging in specific sacerdotal functions and ritual acts. Some of them attained considerable social and civic prestige and importance and were attached to particular temples

Friday, November 05, 2004

Ghent, Treaty Of

(Dec. 24, 1814), agreement in Belgium between Great Britain and the United States to end the War of 1812 on the general basis of the status quo antebellum (maintaining the prewar conditions). Because the military positions for each side were so well balanced, neither country could obtain desired concessions. No mention was made in the peace settlement of neutral rights, particularly

Paeroa, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

borough, northern North Island, New Zealand, situated along the Ohinemuri River near its junction with the Waihou. Paeroa (from a Maori word meaning �long ridge�) was founded in the early 1880s as a port for the Ohinemuri goldfield, 5 mi (8 km) southeast. Mining was shifted to the underground Komata Reefs (6 mi northeast) from 1891 to the 1930s. Gazetted a borough in 1915, Paeroa was regularly served

Thursday, November 04, 2004


The Ayyubid dynasty under Turan Shah, brother of Saladin, which conquered Yemen in 1173 - 74, made its capital first at Zabid and then moved it to Ta'izz. The Ayyubids were succeeded by the Rasulids (1229 - 1454) and the Tahirids (1454 - 1516), who moved the capital to San'a'. In the latter year Ta'izz

Paradzhanov, Sergey Yosifovich, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Paradzhanov studied music at the Tbilisi Conservatory and cinema at the State Institute of Cinematography. In 1952 he joined the Kiev Dovzhenko Studios, but the early motion pictures that he

Wednesday, November 03, 2004

Parallel Evolution, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

the evolution of geographically separated groups in such a way that they show morphological resemblances. A notable example is the similarity shown by the marsupial mammals of Australia to the placental mammals elsewhere. Through the courses of their evolution they have come to remarkably similar forms, so much so that the marsupials are often named for their

Black Hand

Byname of �Ujedinjenje Ili Smrt� (Serbo-Croatian: Union or Death), secret Serbian society of the early 20th century that used terrorist methods to promote the liberation of Serbs outside Serbia from Habsburg or Ottoman rule and was instrumental in planning the assassination of the Austrian archduke Francis Ferdinand (1914), precipitating the outbreak of World War I. The society was formed (1911) and led by Col.

Tuesday, November 02, 2004


Pottery yan first appeared during the so-called Longshan culture


French enamelers active in Limoges during the 16th century, considered to be among the finest such craftsmen of their time. They were noted for their work in grisaille enamel, monochromatically painted enamel work intended to look like sculpture. Nardon P�nicaud (c. 1470 - c. 1542), the first recorded member of the family, worked in the French Gothic style, but his brother or son, Jean

Monday, November 01, 2004

Peninj Mandible, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

also called �Natron Mandible, � an almost perfectly preserved fossil hominid jaw containing a complete set of adult teeth. It was found by Kamaya Kimeu at Peninj, a locale to the west of Lake Natron, about 50 miles (80 km) from the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania in 1964. About 120 artifacts belonging to the Acheulian industry, including stone cleavers and hand axes, were also unearthed near the fossil. The sandstone in

Outram, Sir James, 1st Baronet

Outram was educated at Marischal College, Aberdeen, Scot., and went to Bombay as a cadet in 1819. After serving with distinction in the