Monday, January 31, 2005

Indian National Congress

Byname �Congress Party� broadly based political party of India. Formed in 1885, the Indian National Congress dominated the Indian movement for independence from Great Britain and formed most of India's governments from the time of independence through the mid-1990s.

Dzungar, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

also spelled �Jungar, J��ngar, Dzhungar, or Dsongar, � people of Central Asia, so called because they formed the left wing (dson, �left�; gar, �hand�) of the Mongol army. A western Mongol people whose home was the Ili River valley and Chinese Turkistan, they adopted Buddhism in the 17th century. They are for all practical purposes identical with the Oyrat (q.v.).

Sunday, January 30, 2005

Elk, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Elk county was created in 1843. The principal communities are St. Marys, Johnsonburg, and Ridgway, which is the county seat.


Group of young Polish poets who were united in their desire to forge a new poetic language that would accurately reflect the experience of modern life. Founded in Warsaw about 1918, the Skamander group took its name, and the name of its monthly publication, from a river of ancient Troy. The group was founded by Julian Tuwim and other poets. Tuwim, a lyrical poet of emotional

Saturday, January 29, 2005

Epipolae, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

ancient fortified plateau west of Syracuse, Sicily, which was enclosed with walls some 12 miles (19 km) long by the tyrant Dionysius I the Elder (c. 430 - 367 BC). The southern wall, of which considerable remains exist, was probably often restored. Epipolae narrows to a ridge about 180 feet (55 m) wide at one point, and there stand the ruins of the most imposing fortress to survive from the Greek period.


Asparagus may be erect or climbing, and most of the species are more

Friday, January 28, 2005


Arabic �mihrab � prayer niche in the qiblah wall (that facing Mecca) of a mosque; mihrabs vary in size but are usually ornately decorated. The mihrab originated in the reign of the Umayyad prince al-Walid I (705 - 715), during which time the famous mosques at Medina, Jerusalem, and Damascus were built. The structure was adapted from the prayer niches common to the oratories of Coptic Christian monks.

Epistatic Gene, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

in genetics, a gene that determines whether or not a trait will be expressed. The system of genes that determines skin colour in man, for example, is independent of the gene responsible for albinism (lack of pigment) or the development of skin colour. This gene is an epistatic gene. When the albino condition occurs, the genes that determine skin colour are present but not

Thursday, January 27, 2005

Eureka, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Gold and silver mining is the chief economic activity, although there is some agriculture. The county was created in 1873, and its seat is Eureka. Area 4,176 square miles (10,816 square

Wednesday, January 26, 2005


Plural �Maggidim, � any of the many itinerant Jewish preachers who flourished especially in Poland and Russia during the 17th and 18th centuries. Because rabbis at that time preached only on the Sabbaths preceding Pesah (Passover) and Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), maggidim were in great demand throughout the year to instruct, encourage, and sometimes admonish their congregation. Through

Europoort, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

port on the southwestern coast of The Netherlands. It lies opposite the Hoek van Holland, at the entrance of the New Waterway Canal, a distributary of the Rhine. About 17 miles (27 km) upstream on the canal lies the Port of Rotterdam, for which Europoort functions as an outport. Europoort is one of the most modern ports in the world; its construction was begun in 1958. It consists of

Tuesday, January 25, 2005


Traditional region, east-central Sudan. It is bordered on the east by Ethiopia. The Atbara River, an important tributary of the Nile, flows northwestward through Kassala and causes seasonal floods during torrential summer rains. Rocky deserts dominate the centre of the region, while in the north is the Butana Plain, with sandy clay soils and occasional low hills with

Fayette, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

county, southwestern Pennsylvania, U.S., bounded to the north by Jacobs Creek; to the east by Laurel Hill, the Youghiogheny River, and Youghiogheny River Lake; to the south by Maryland and West Virginia; and to the west by the Monongahela River. It consists of a hilly region on the Allegheny Plateau that rises to the Allegheny Mountains in the east (including Chestnut Ridge).

Monday, January 24, 2005


Town and port, Otago local government region, southeastern South Island, New Zealand. Its name comes from a Maori term meaning �place of sheltered fire.� It was established as a grazing run in 1853. Situated on a small bay, the town began to improve its harbour in 1872. It is a commercial fishing centre and the chief port for the neighbouring coastal plain and the Waitaki River

Fish-finder, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

also called �Netsonde, � in commercial fishing, high-frequency sonar device for locating schools of fish. It transmits sound waves downward and receives echoes from the bottom of the sea, or from intervening schools of fish, also indicating distance from ship to fish. Two different types are used, one of which is a simple �echo sounder� that points directly downward from the ship and indicates

Sunday, January 23, 2005

Fisher, Alan (wainwright), The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Fisher left secondary school in 1939 to join the local office of NUPE as a junior clerk, later

Saturday, January 22, 2005

, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

oceanographic study platform developed in the United States. It combines the advantages of extreme stability while floating on site and ease of movement to new areas. In the horizontal position, FLIP, 109 m (357 feet) long, can be towed behind a ship. When FLIP's ballast tanks are flooded, the platform tilts to an upright position with 17 m (55 feet) of its length above water. Above-water

Chemical Compound, Aldehydes and ketones

Similar to the double bond of alkenes, the carbon-oxygen double bond is made up of a s bond, whose electron pair lies between the bonded

Friday, January 21, 2005

Flocculation, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

in physical chemistry, separation of solid particles from a liquid to form loose aggregations or soft flakes. These flocculates are easily disrupted, being held together only by a force analogous to the surface tension of a liquid. In industrial processes, flocculation may be a desired or an undesirable phenomenon, and various methods may be used to cause or eliminate


Also spelled �Rzev� city, Tver oblast (province), northwestern Russia. It lies along the upper Volga River at the crossing of the Moscow-Riga and St. Petersburg - Bryansk trunk railways. First mentioned in 1216 as an independent princedom, Rzhev has always been a route centre on the western approaches to Moscow. The city has had a stormy history. It was held at various times by the princes of Tver

Thursday, January 20, 2005

Forest, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

The county was formed in 1848, and Tionesta is the county seat. The main industries are manufacturing

Biblical Literature, Collations of the Masoretic materials

The earliest extant attempt at collating the differences between the Ben Asher and Ben Naphtali Masoretic traditions was made by Mishael ben Uzziel in his KitaG Gi-Hulaf (before 1050). A vast amount of Masoretic information, drawn chiefly from Spanish manuscripts, is to be found in the text-critical commentary known as Minhath Shai, by Solomon Jedidiah Norzi, completed in 1626 and

Wednesday, January 19, 2005

Frederick, Pauline, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

After receiving her A.M. degree in international law from American University, Washington, D.C., Frederick worked as a free-lance reporter on so-called women's issues. She used this experience to gain a foothold in journalism, and after the end of World War II she reported on

Hurdle Race

Horse race over a course on which a number of obstacles, called hurdles, must be jumped. Hurdle racing, a kind of preparation for steeplechasing, originated in England and Ireland in the 18th century and by the second half of the 20th century had spread to Commonwealth countries, Europe, and the eastern United States. Its hurdles are light and movable and are lower than steeplechase

Tuesday, January 18, 2005

Frederick, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

county, northern Maryland, U.S., bounded by Pennsylvania to the north, the Monocacy River to the northeast, Virginia to the southwest (the Potomac River constituting the border), and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the west. It consists of a piedmont region bisected north-south by the valley of the Monocacy. Parklands include Cunningham Falls State Park and Catoctin Mountain


A typical sound-absorbing

Monday, January 17, 2005

Ting, Samuel C.c.

The son of a Chinese college professor who was studying in the United States when Ting was born, he was raised in mainland China and Taiwan and at the age of 20 immigrated to the United States. He was educated at the University

Sunday, January 16, 2005

Garrett, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

county, extreme western Maryland, U.S., lying between West Virginia to the west and south and Pennsylvania to the north. Parklands and lakes occupy one-fifth of the county area. Waterways such as the Casselman, Savage, and Youghiogheny rivers as well as Deep Creek Lake, the state's largest freshwater lake, line the valleys of the Allegheny Mountains. Backbone

Saturday, January 15, 2005


outflow from the St. Lawrence River, which moves around the Gasp� Peninsula and along the southern shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It merges with a cold branch of the Labrador (Cabot) Current before flowing through the Cabot Strait and into the North Atlantic Ocean. The current responds to the river's flow, being strong and warm in the summer and cold and weak in the winter.

Wieman, Carl E.

After studying at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (B.S., 1973), Wieman earned a Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1977. He then taught and conducted research

Friday, January 14, 2005

Gatlinburg, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

city, Sevier county, eastern Tennessee, U.S. It lies about 30 miles (50 km) southeast of Knoxville, at the northwestern entrance to Great Smoky Mountains National Park. English and Scotch-Irish settlers began to arrive along the Little Pigeon River about 1795; by 1835 the settlement was called White Oak Flats. It was renamed in 1860 for Radford Gatlin, who opened a store there in 1855. In an American

North Germanic Languages, Danish

The norms of the first printed books in Danish continued the norm of the royal chancery in Copenhagen, which was not based on any particular dialect and probably reflected a state of the language closer to that of 1350 than of 1550. Because of the influence of the written language, many speech forms used even by the aristocracy at that time were eliminated or branded as vulgar.

Thursday, January 13, 2005


A cotton carder by profession, Dadu became a religious wanderer and preacher, settling for periods of time at Sembhar, Amber, and finally at Naraina, near Jaipur (Rajasthan state), which remains the centre of his following. Dadu rejected the authority of the Vedas (earliest Hindu

Gatton, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

town and shire, southern Queensland, Australia. It lies along Lockyer Creek, about 58 miles (93 km) west of Brisbane. Probably named after Gattonside near Roxburgh in the Borders region, Scotland, it was gazetted as the site for a village in 1855 and by 1858 was a place of call for travelers between Brisbane and the Darling Downs. Gatton is now the service centre for a mixed-farming district

Wednesday, January 12, 2005

Driver Ant

Using their powerful cutting jaws, driver ants attack everything in their path, including snakes, birds, mammals,

Genda Minoru, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Genda, a graduate of the Japanese Naval Academy (1924), was a fighter

Tuesday, January 11, 2005

World War I, Greek affairs

Greece's attitude toward the war was long uncertain: whereas King Constantine I and the general staff stood for neutrality, Eleuth�rios Veniz�los, leader of the Liberal Party, favoured the Allied cause. As prime minister from 1910, Veniz�los wanted Greece to participate in the Allies' Dardanelles enterprise against Turkey in 1915, but his arguments were overruled by the

Gendje Carpet, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Old Gendjes are made entirely of

Monday, January 10, 2005

General Association Of Regular Baptist Churches, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

association of independent, conservative Baptist churches in the United States, organized in 1932 after 22 Baptist churches withdrew from the Northern (later American) Baptist Convention. These churches withdrew because they felt that the Northern Baptists were accepting the teachings of the modernists, or liberals, who accepted biblical criticism and attempted

Sunday, January 09, 2005

Geneva, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

town, Adams county, eastern Indiana, U.S., on the Wabash River, 35 miles (56 km) northeast of Muncie. Platted in 1853, it was called Buffalo until presumably renamed for the Swiss city. A rural community with many Old Order Amish families, it lies in the �Limberlost Country,� a timber-swampland made famous by the novelist Gene Stratton Porter in such novels as Freckles (1904) and A Girl of the


Town, west-central Mauritania. It is an oasis and a caravan stopping point and lies on a road leading southwest to Nouakchott, the national capital. The oasis produces dates and grains and supports cattle, sheep, and goat grazing. Atar is the site of an airstrip; it also has a school for traditional weaving, and it is an important source of rugs. Pop. (1977) 16,326; (1988) 21,366.

Saturday, January 08, 2005

Ch�teau-renault, Fran�ois-louis Rousselet, Marquis De

In 1689 he transported French troops to Ireland to aid the deposed Catholic King James II of Great Britain, and he obtained a short-lived advantage by defeating a British fleet off the south coast of

Ghee Hin, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Chinese secret society that flourished in Malaya in the 19th and early 20th centuries. During the 1800s many Chinese migrated to Malaya, bringing their secret societies with them. The Ghee Hin had strong branch organizations in Penang. Its membership consisted primarily of Cantonese speakers from southern China. The Ghee Hin was a semilegal society internally controlled

Friday, January 07, 2005

Girandole, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

elaborate wall bracket incorporating one or more candleholders and frequently a mirror to reflect the light. An object of luxury, it was usually embellished with carving and gilding. Although the name is Italian in origin, girandoles reached the greatest heights of fashion (in the second half of the 18th century) in France and England. At the beginning of this period

Bishop, Sir Henry Rowley

Bishop conducted at Covent Garden Theatre (1810), King's Theatre, Haymarket (1816 - 17), Drury Lane (from 1825), and Vauxhall Gardens (1830). He became professor of music successively at the Universities of Edinburgh (1841) and Oxford (1848) and was knighted in 1842. Bishop composed light

Thursday, January 06, 2005


Town, southern suburb of Paris, in Essonne d�partement, �le-de-France r�gion, northern France. Athis-Mons lies near the confluence of the Orge and Seine rivers and is bisected by the N7 road artery leading to the centre of Paris. It was ancient Attegais, later Athis-sur-Orge, where a treaty of that name was signed in 1305 by the king of France and the count of Flanders. A Romanesque

Wednesday, January 05, 2005

Indian Philosophy, Vaisnava schools

The main philosophers of the medieval Vaisnavism have been noted above. Vaisnavism, however, has a long history, traceable to the Vishnu worship of the Rigveda, the Bhakti conception of the epics, and the Vasudeva cult of the pre-Christian era. Of the two main Vaisnava scriptures, or agamas, the Pa�caratra (�Relating to the Period of Five Nights�) and the Vaikhanasa (�Relating to a Hermit

Tuesday, January 04, 2005

Bruegel, Pieter, Ii, The Younger

The eldest son of Pieter Bruegel the Elder, the young Pieter studied first under his grandmother, the miniaturist Maria Verhulst, and then in Antwerp. He painted largely in the manner of his father and even copied many of his works; some of his copies cannot

Godfree, Kitty, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Godfree lost the 1923 All-England final to Suzanne Lenglen of France, but

Monday, January 03, 2005


The year 2002 was a critical one for China. Domestically, it was a year of political transition to a new generation of leaders; internationally, significant changes in geopolitical alignments had major repercussions for the country. The 16th Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), after some delay, was convened in early November. China's �Three Represents� doctrine

Goibhniu, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Welsh �Gofannon, � ancient Celtic smith god. Goibhniu figured in Irish tradition as one of a trio of divine craftsmen; the other two were Luchta the wright and Creidhne the metalworker. Goibhniu was also the provider of the sacred otherworld feast, the Fled Goibhnenn; he allegedly brewed the special ale thought to confer immortality on those who drank it. In Christian times he became

Sunday, January 02, 2005

Goodall, Sir Reginald, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Goodall studied at the Royal College of Music in London and in Munich, Salzburg, and Vienna before joining the Sadler's Wells company in 1944. The next year he conducted the first performance of Benjamin Britten's opera

Dubos, Ren�

In full �Ren� Jules Dubos� French-born American microbiologist, environmentalist, and author whose pioneering research in isolating antibacterial substances from certain soil microorganisms led to the discovery of major antibiotics. Dubos is also known for his research and writings on a number of subjects, including antibiotics, acquired immunity,

Saturday, January 01, 2005

Grafton, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

county, western New Hampshire, U.S. It is bounded to the west by Vermont (the Connecticut River constituting the entire border) and consists of a mountainous region, with the White Mountains and a large portion of White Mountain National Forest occupying the northeastern part of the county. It is drained by the Ammonoosuc, Baker, Mascoma, and Pemigewasset rivers. Other


In a strict sense, the philosophy taught by Epicurus (341 - 270 BC). In a broad sense, it is a system of ethics embracing every conception or form of life that can be traced to the principles of his philosophy. In ancient polemics, as often since, the term was employed with an even more generic (and clearly erroneous) meaning as the equivalent of hedonism, the doctrine that pleasure or