Monday, February 28, 2005

Chrissie, Lake, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

The lake lies in the farming region known as New Scotland, which was settled about 1866 by Alexander McCorkindale.


Also spelled �Iviza, or Ivica, � island, Balearic Islands provincia and comunidad aut�noma (�autonomous community�), Spain, one of the Balearic Islands in the western Mediterranean. It lies 50 mi (80 km) southwest of Majorca and has an area of 221 sq mi (572 sq km). A strategic point of great importance in ancient times, the island was inhabited by the Phoenicians and Carthaginians and has some notable archaeological

Sunday, February 27, 2005

Pierce, John Robinson

Pierce began working for Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., New York City, in 1936. He improved the traveling-wave tube, which is used as a broadband amplifier of microwaves, and designed a new electrostatically focused electron-multiplier

Christchurch Mansion, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

in Ipswich, Suffolk, Eng., Tudor mansion built between 1548 and 1550 by Edmund Withipoll and now maintained as an art gallery and museum that is part of the Ipswich Museum of Art. The mansion houses a collection of local antiquities, including paintings and memorials of Edward Fitzgerald and Thomas Wollner. It has fine 16th-century paneling and part of a marble font from

Saturday, February 26, 2005

Clarke, T.e.b., The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Clarke worked as a free-lance journalist and novelist before joining Ealing Studios as a writer in 1943. He scripted several dramatic motion pictures, notably The Blue Lamp (1950), but received international fame

Muhammad Ibn Falah

Muhammad ibn Falah was reputed to be descended from the seventh Shi'ite imam, Musa al-Kazim. He received a traditional Islamic religious education in al-Hillah, a famous centre for Shi'ite studies. As a student he was noted for his extremist religious views, which bordered on heresy, and he

Friday, February 25, 2005

Cloture, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

A cloture's


The first Ramapithecus fossils (fragments of an upper jaw and some teeth) were discovered in 1932 in fossil deposits in the Siwalik hills of northern India. No significance was attached

Thursday, February 24, 2005

Coleman, James S(amuel), The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Coleman received his B.S. from Purdue University (1949) and his Ph.D. from Columbia University (1955), where he was a research associate in the Bureau of Applied Social Research (1953 - 55). While there he was influenced by the style


Also spelled �Ricercar (Italian: �to seek out�), �plural �Ricercari, � musical composition for instruments in which one or more themes are developed through melodic imitation; it was prominent in the 16th and 17th centuries. The earliest ricercari, which were for the lute, appeared in 1507. Well-suited to the technical capabilities of the lute, they mixed passages in chordal style, running scale passages, and alternation of high and low phrases

Wednesday, February 23, 2005

Competitive Exclusion, Principle Of, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

also called �Gause's Principle, or Grinnell's Axiom� (after G.F. Gause, a Soviet biologist, and J. Grinnell, an American naturalist, who first clearly established it), statement that in competition between species that seek the same ecological niche, one species survives while the other expires under a given set of environmental conditions.

Jackson, Andrew

When Jackson arrived in Nashville, the community was still a frontier settlement. As prosecuting attorney, Jackson was principally occupied with suits for the collection of debts. He was so successful in these litigations that he soon had a thriving private practice and had gained the friendship of landowners and creditors. For almost 30 years Jackson was allied with this group in Tennessee politics. Jackson boarded in the home of Colonel John Donelson, where he met and married the colonel's daughter, Rachel Robards (Rachel Jackson).

Tuesday, February 22, 2005

Water Scavenger Beetle

Any of the approximately 2,000 species of the predominately aquatic insect family Hydrophilidae (order Coleoptera). These beetles are found swimming in marshy freshwater ponds throughout the world, especially in warm regions. Water scavenger beetles have smooth, oval, dark-brown or black bodies and short, hairy, clubbed antennae. They range in length from several to

Cozzi Porcelain, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

soft-paste porcelain made in Venice by Geminiano Cozzi from about 1764 to 1812. Cozzi products, often freely adapted versions of Meissen porcelain, consisted mainly of figures, vases, and tablewares with Rococo decoration that was frequently distinguished by an imaginative interpretation wholly Italian in style. Rich colours, including red, bluish purple, and emerald

Monday, February 21, 2005

Croatian Peasant Party, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

dominant political party in Croatia during the first half of the 20th century. Founded in 1904 by Stjepan Radic (and his brother Ante Radic), it advocated home rule for a Croatia dominated by peasants on homesteads increased by redistribution of land. The party formed the almost constant opposition to the Serbian-dominated government of Yugoslavia after the foundation

Kunlun Mountains, Drainage and glaciation

The Kunluns form a part of that region in Central Asia in which there is only internal drainage, associated mainly with the Tarim and Tsaidam basins to the north and the basins of the Plateau of Tibet to the south. Only the most easterly spurs of the mountain system, where the source of the Huang Ho (Yellow River) is located, have drainage systems that empty into the

Sunday, February 20, 2005

Nagodba, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

(Serbo-Croatian: �Agreement�), English in full� Croatian-hungarian Agreement Of � 1868, pact that governed Croatia's political status as a territory of Hungary until the end of World War I. When the Ausgleich, or Compromise, of 1867 created the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy, Croatia, which was part of the Habsburg empire, was merged with Slavonia and placed under Hungarian jurisdiction. Although many Croats who sought full autonomy for the South Slavs of


Wade-Giles romanization �K'u-ch'e, �Pinyin �Kuqa, � oasis city in the Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China. The oasis of Kucha lies at the foot of the southern slope of the Tien Shan (�Celestial Mountains�) on the northern rim of the Tarim Basin. It is watered by the Kucha and Mu-cha-t'i rivers, which during rainy spells flow into the Tarim River but which for most of the year lose themselves in the salt marshes on the northern

Saturday, February 19, 2005

X-ray Tube

Also called �Roentgen Tube, � vacuum tube that produces X rays by accelerating electrons to a high velocity with a high-voltage field and causing them to collide with a target, the anode. Because X rays can penetrate solid substances to varying degrees, they are applied in medicine and dentistry, in the exploration of the structure of crystalline materials, and in research. The tube consists of

Crocidolite, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Crocidolite is often replaced

Friday, February 18, 2005

Cumberland, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

county, south-central Pennsylvania, U.S. It consists of a hilly region in the Appalachian Ridge and Valley physiographic province bounded to the north by Blue Mountain, to the east by the Susquehanna River, to the southeast by Yellow Breeches Creek, and to the south by the Blue Ridge Mountains. Conodoguinet Creek and the Appalachian National Scenic Trail cross the

Gray, Dolores

American singer and actress (b. June 7, 1924, Chicago, Ill. - d. June 26, 2002, New York, N.Y.), had a rich contralto voice that gained her success in motion pictures and, especially, stage musicals. Her first, and perhaps greatest, triumph came in the London production of Annie Get Your Gun, which opened in 1947 and ran for nearly three years, playing to an audience that totaled more than 2.5 million. She followed

Thursday, February 17, 2005

Cylinder Machine, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

device for producing paper, paperboard, and other fibreboards, invented in 1809 by John Dickinson. It consists of one or more tubes of wire screen partially immersed and rotated in a vat containing a mixture of pulp and water; the screen picks up a film from which the water drains, leaving a wet sheet that is transferred from the cylinder onto a felt in a continuous web. Cylinders

Turkey Vulture

Also called �Turkey Buzzard� (Cathartes aura), long-winged, long-tailed vulture (family Cathartidae, the New World vultures) that has dark plumage, a whitish beak, white legs, and a bare red head (black in immature birds) that is covered with whitish bumps. Its wingspread is about 1.8 m (6 feet), and its length is about 75 cm (30 inches). The turkey vulture has an elaborate olfactory canal and uses its keen

Wednesday, February 16, 2005

Cellular Respiration

One objective of the degradation of foodstuffs is to

Tuesday, February 15, 2005

Ejaculatory Duct

Either of two hollow tubes, each formed by union of the ampulla of a ductus deferens (q.v.) and the excretory duct of a seminal vesicle (q.v.). The ducts, which open into the urethra about halfway through the prostate gland (q.v.), function to mix the sperm stored in the ampulla with fluids secreted by the seminal vesicles and to transport these substances to the prostate.

Cylindrical Projection, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

in cartography, any of numerous map projections of the terrestrial sphere on the surface of a cylinder that is then unrolled as a plane. Originally, this and other map projections were achieved by a systematic method of drawing the Earth's meridians and latitudes on the flat surface. But this method produces distortion, so a map projection today may be created using

Monday, February 14, 2005

Cyrankiewicz, J

Cyrankiewicz attended Jagiellonian University in Krak�w, where he became secretary of the local branch of the Polish Socialist Party (PSP) in 1935. During World War II he was captured by German forces (1939), but he escaped and worked


Among the most important of Baghdad's museums are the Iraqi Museum (1923), containing important archaeological treasures from ancient Mesopotamian history; the National

Sunday, February 13, 2005

Taal Lake

Lake in southwestern Luzon, Philippines, occupying a volcanic crater with a maximum width of 15 miles (24 km), at less than 10 feet (3 m) above sea level. It has an area of 94 square miles (244 square km) and is the country's third largest lake. Within the lake rises Volcano Island (984 feet [300 m]), which itself contains another small crater (Yellow Lake). Volcano Island, called Taal Volcano, has erupted 25 times


Dach� left school at the age of 14 and was apprenticed to her aunt, a milliner in Bordeaux, and later to the famous milliner Caroline Reboux of Paris. In 1924 Dach� moved to New York City, where she worked as a salesclerk at Macy's

Saturday, February 12, 2005

Performing Arts, Germany.

Two notable films in a generally undistinguished year were Winfried Bonengel's F�hrer Ex, a dramatic investigation of contemporary neo-Nazism, seen as a legacy of communist oppression in the former East Germany, and Eoin Moore's Pigs Will Fly, a battered-wife story that observed the unhappy relationship through the psychology of the husband, himself a painfully

Daniel, Yuli Markovich, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

After being seriously wounded in World War II while serving in the Soviet army

Friday, February 11, 2005

Defence Of India Act, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

By 1918 there were about 800 internees

Abrahams, Peter

Abrahams left South Africa at the age of 20, settling first in Britain and then in Jamaica; nevertheless, most of his novels and short stories are based on his early life

Thursday, February 10, 2005

Deng Yingchao, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Deng's involvement in political and social causes began in her youth. She joined the movement to abolish the custom of binding women's feet

Neustadt An Der Weinstrasse

Formerly �Neustadt An Der Haardt, � city, Rhineland-Palatinate Land (state), southwestern Germany. It lies on the eastern slope of the Haardt Mountains, at the mouth of the Speyer-Bach. Founded in 1220 and chartered in 1275, its historic buildings include the Casimirianum (the seat of Heidelberg University, 1578 - 83, now a convention hall), the town hall (formerly a Jesuit college), and the Stiftskirche (�Collegiate Church�), which

Wednesday, February 09, 2005

Gadfly Petrel

Any of several species of petrels distinguished from others by their fluttering type of flight. See petrel.

Deorai, Battle Of, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Dara challenged Aurangzeb, relying on the promised support of Jaswant Singh of Marwar, but Jaswant then deserted him, and Dara was left to face Aurangzeb's superior army alone.

Tuesday, February 08, 2005


Decimus Brutus checked Mark Antony's retreat at Pollentia in 43 BC. The Roman general Stilicho

Devequt, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

also spelled �Devekut� (Hebrew: �attachment�), in Jewish religious thought, an adherence to or communion with God that stops short of mystical union. The notion of devequt apparently derived from the biblical reference to �loving the Lord your God, walking in all his ways, and holding fast to him� (Deuteronomy 11:22). As a fundamental concept of the Jewish mystical system called the Kabbala, devequt was

Monday, February 07, 2005

Drake, Alfred, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

While a junior at Brooklyn College, Drake joined a summer company performing Gilbert and

Socialism, Other early socialists

The 1840s saw the rise of a number of other socialist doctrines, particularly in France. Louis-Auguste Blanqui evolved a radical socialist - or, as he called it, communist - doctrine based on a democratic populism and on the belief that capitalism as an inherently unstable order would soon be replaced by cooperative associations. Impatient with theorizing, given to a strong

Sunday, February 06, 2005

Duarte, Jos

Duarte studied civil engineering at Notre Dame University in the United States (B.S., 1948). In 1960 he was a founder of the centre-right Christian Democratic Party. While he was mayor of San Salvador (1964 - 70) his administration

Morecambe Bay

Bay of the Irish Sea deeply indenting the northwest coast of England between the port of Barrow-in-Furness to the north and the seaside resorts of Morecambe and Heysham to the south. The bay separates the Furness region of the historic county of Lancashire (now in the administrative county of Cumbria) from the remainder of Lancashire. Much of the Lake District massif,

Saturday, February 05, 2005

Cat Shark

(family Scyliorhinidae), any of more than 80 species of small, mottled sharks (order Lamniformes). Although many bottom-dwelling species are rare and poorly known ecologically, representatives have been found in all major marine environments of the tropical and temperate regions. Most cat sharks are small (less than 90 cm [3 feet]), and many have bold body markings. They have

Dumuzi-abzu, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

in Mesopotamian religion, Sumerian deity, city goddess of Kinirsha near Lagash in the southeastern marshland region. She represented the power of fertility and new life in the marshes. Dumuzi-Abzu corresponded to the Sumerian god Dumuzi of the central steppe area, and thus around Eridu she was viewed as male and as son of Enki (Akkadian: Ea, also called the Lord of

Friday, February 04, 2005

Dyer, Mary Barrett

Married in 1633 in London to William Dyer, Mary Dyer went with him to America (c. 1635) and settled in Boston. She began to accept the antinomian

Dur-kurigalzu, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

modern �'Aqarquf� fortified city and royal residence of the later Kassite kings, located near Babylon in southern Mesopotamia (now in Iraq). This city was founded either by Kurigalzu I (c. 1400 - c. 1375 BC) or by Kurigalzu II (c. 1332 - 08). Between AD 1943 and 1945, Iraqi excavations unearthed a monumental ziggurat, three temples, and a palace with painted wall decorations and an ambulatory with square pillars. The temples, dedicated

Thursday, February 03, 2005


Also spelled �Hipparchos� Greek astronomer and mathematician who made fundamental contributions to the advancement of astronomy as a mathematical science and to the foundations of trigonometry. Although he is commonly ranked among the greatest scientists of antiquity, very little is known about his life, and only one of his many writings

Dyer-bennet, Richard, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

Though born in England, Dyer-Bennet grew up in Canada and California and attended the University of California at

Wednesday, February 02, 2005

Dysphagia, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

difficulty or pain in swallowing, caused by lesions or stricture of the upper digestive tract, obstruction of the upper digestive tract by tumours or foreign bodies, or disturbances in the nervous or muscular control of swallowing. Obstruction of the esophagus is the most common cause of dysphagia. People with dysphagia may experience a sensation that food or

Graham, Jorie

Graham grew up in France and Italy. After attending the Sorbonne, she continued her education at New York University (B.F.A., 1973) and at the University of Iowa (M.F.A., 1978). She taught in Kentucky, California, and New York City before returning

Tuesday, February 01, 2005

Dziady, The rise of the major sects: Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Saktism

in Slavic religion, all the dead ancestors of a family, the rites that are performed in their memory, and the day on which those rites are performed. Dziady take place three or four times a year; though the dates vary in different localities, dziady are generally celebrated in the winter before the beginning of Advent and in the spring on the Sunday of Doubting Thomas.

Hawea Lake

Lake in west-central South Island, New Zealand. The lake lies at the heart of a resort area 182 miles (293 km) northwest of Dunedin by road. It occupies 54 square miles (141 square km) of a valley dammed by a terminal moraine (glacial debris). The lake, 1,142 feet (348 m) above sea level, is 19 miles (31 km) long, 5 miles (8 km) wide, and 1,286 feet (392 m) deep. It drains an area of 536 square miles (1,388 square km). Its main affluent, the Hunter River,